Table 2.

Mammalian host cells known to be targeted by the hemolysins and leukotoxins of the HlyA family

ToxinTarget speciesTarget cellsReported effects
HlyAHuman, monkey, pig, rat, mouse, horse, sheep, cowErythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, epithelia, endotheliaCytolytic, cytotoxic, NO production, cytokine production, cytoskeletal rearrangement, superoxide production, leukotriene production, receptor shedding
EhxAHuman, sheep, cowErythrocytes, leukocytesCytolytic, cytotoxic
ApxIA/ApxIIAPig, cow, rabbitErythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, endotheliaCytolytic, cytotoxic, superoxide production
ApxIIIAPigLeukocytes, macrophagesCytotoxic
AaltAHuman, ape, monkeyLeukocytes, lymphocytesCytotoxic
AshAPig, horse, sheep, cowErythrocytesCytolytic
LktASheep, goat, cowLeukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, plateletsCytotoxic, superoxide production, leukotriene release, cytokine production, cytoskeletal rearrangement
PllktAPig, cowLeukocytes, lymphocytesCytotoxic
CyaAHuman, sheepErythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophagescAMP production, cytolytic, cytotoxic, inhibits superoxide production
MbxASheep, cowErythrocytes, lymphocytes, epitheliaCytolytic, cytotoxic