Table 3.

Survey of eubacterial SSR-containing genes with a known function

SpeciesRepeat motifGeneLevel of regulationGene functionReference(s)
TranscriptionTranslation/protein
H. influenzae CAAT lic1–lic3 +LPS biosynthesisa 83, 211,212
GCAA yadA +Adhesin (Yersinia homolog) 83
GACA lgtC +Glycosyltransferase 83
TTGGNDf +Iron binding proteins 83
AGTCND+Restriction modification, methyltransferase 83
TTTAND+UnknownBacillus homolog 83
TA hifA/B +Synthesis of fimbriae 199, 200
N. meningitidis G lsi2 +LPS biosynthesis 18
CTCTT opa +Opacity surface proteins 119
A opa +Opacity surface proteins 119
G porA +OMP 198
S. aureusb 93 bp fnb +Fibronectin binding protein 139
561 bp cna +Collagen adhesin 140
81 bp coa +Coagulase 65,165
GAAGAXXXXAAXAAXCCTXGXAAA spa +Protein A 27
GAXTCXGAXTCXGAXAGX clf +Clumping factor, fibrinogen receptor 116, 117
Streptococcus spp.60 bp pspA +Pneumococcal surface proteinc 219
69 bp emm +Phagocytosis resistance M protein 6
246 bp αC +αC protein (antibody-mediated killing) 67
E. faecalis TAGTARR rep1 and rep2 +Iteron, regulates plasmid replication and transfer 72
M. hyorhinusd 36 and 39 bp vlp +Variant membrane lipoprotein 218
A vlp +Variant membrane lipoprotein 218
M. bovis 24 bp vspA +Membrane surface lipoprotein 107
M. fermentans A P78 +Lipoprotein in ABC transporter complex 183
U. urealyticum GGTAAAGAACAACCAGCA MB +Serology-specific MB antigen 222
B. anthracis CAATATCAACAA vvrA +Microfilarial sheath protein homolog 87
L. monocytogenes 66 bp prfA +Leucine-rich internalin like protein 37
E. coli A and Ce lac +β-Galactosidase 52,156
A. marginale  87 bp msp1α +Major surface protein 2
  • a Homologues for these sequences have been described for Moraxella catharralis and the human pathogenic Neisseria species.

  • b The genes described for this species all produce MSCRAMMs.

  • c Homologous structures were identified in diverse streptococci and Clostridium difficile.

  • d See Table 2 for the analysis of M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae on the basis of the whole genome sequences as available.

  • e Homopolymeric tracts.

  • f ND, not defined.