Table 3.

Main characteristics of aerobic gram-positive moderately halophilic bacteriaa

FeatureHalobacillusBacillus
H. halophilus (33, 315)H. litoralis (315)H. trueperi (315)B. halophilus (342)B. salexigens (89)
MorphologyCoccoidRodsRodsRodsRods
Size (μm)1.0–2.0 × 2.0–3.00.7–1.1 × 2.0–4.50.7–1.4 × 2.0–4.50.5–1.0 × 2.5–9.00.3–0.6 × 1.5–3.5
PigmentationOrangeOrangeOrangeNoneNone
Spore shapeSE/SE/SEE
Spore positionC/STC/STC/STCST/C
Sporangium swollenNDND+
Motility++++
Facultative anaerobe
Oxidase+++++
NaCl range (%)2–200.5–250.5–303–307–20
NaCl optimum (%)10101015  10
Temp range (°C)15–4010–4310–4415–5015–45
pH range7–96–9.56–9.56–86–11
Acid production from:
 ArabinoseNDNDND
 Glucose++++
 LactoseNDNDND
 Trehalose+++
 Mannitol++
Hydrolysis of:
 Gelatin++++
 Casein++
 Starch+
 Esculin++
 Tween 80ND
 DNA+++++
H2S productionNDNDND+
Nitrate reduction
Nitrite reduction
Phosphatasedd
Voges-Proskauer
Menaquinone systemMK-7NDNDMK-7ND
Cell wall typeOrn–d-AspOrn–d-AspOrn–d-Asp m-Dpm m-Dpm
Type strainDSM 2266DSM 10405DSM 10404ATCC 49085ATCC 700290
HabitatSaline soils, salternsGreat Salt LakeGreat Salt LakeUnknown (rotting wood from seawater)Salterns, saline soils
G+C content (mol%)40.1–40.9424351.536.3–39.5
Phylogenetic branchLow-G+C gram-positiveLow-G+C gram-positiveNDNDLow-G+C gram-positive
MarinococcusSalinicoccusNesterenkonia halobia (218, 316)Tetragenococcus muriaticus (304)
M. halophilus (111, 189)M. albus (111)S. roseus (344)S. hispanicus (188, 345)
CocciCocciCocciCocciCocciCocci
1.0–1.21.0–1.21.0–2.51.0–2.0ND0.5–0.8
Yellow-orangeNonePink redReddish-orangeNone or yellowWhite
++
+
++++
2–252–250.9–25 0.5–25 3–251–25
10  10  10  10107–10
15–3715–3715–4015–3720–4015–40
NDND6–95–95–105–9.6
++++
++
+++
++++ND
+++ND
++ND
+++ND
+ND
++++ND
ND
++
+
+dND
ND
MK-7MK-7MK-6MK-6MK-9, MK-8, MK-7ND
m-Dpm m-Dpm l-Lys–Gly5 l-Lys–Gly5 l-Lys–Gly–l-GluLys–d-Asp
ATCC 27964CCM 3517ATCC 49258ATCC 49259ATCC 21727JCM 10006
Salterns, saline soilsSalternsSalternsSalterns, saline soilsSalternsFermented squid liver sauce
46.444.951.245.6–49.3ND36.5
Low-G+C gram-positiveNDLow-G+C gram-positiveNDHigh-G+C gram-positiveND
  • a S, spherical; E, ellipsoidal; C, central; ST, subterminal. +, positive; −, negative; d, differs among strains; ND, not determined. MK-9, MK-8, MK-7, MK-6, menaquinone with nine, eight, seven, and six isoprene units, respectively.m-Dpm, meso-diaminopimelic acid.