Table 2.

Main characteristics of other aerobic or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative moderately halophilic bacteriaa

Feature Salinivibrio costicola (91,201)Pseudomonas halophila (65)Flavobacterium gondwanense (52)Flavobacterium salegens (52)Arhodomonas aquaeolei (4)Spirochaeta halophila (103)Dichotomicrobium thermohalophilum (124)
MorphologyCurved rodsRodsRodsRodsShort rodsHelicoidalProsthecate
Size (μm)0.5 × 1.5–3.20.8–1.0 × 1.5–5.00.4–0.8 × 1.7–11.70.5–0.8 × 1.2–11.50.8–1.0 × 2.0–2.50.4 × 15–300.8–1.8 × 0.8–2.0
PigmentationCreamReddish-brownOrangeYellowNoneRedReddish-brown
Motility++++
Facultative anaerobe++
Oxidase+++++ND+
NaCl range (%)0.5–120.1–200–50–206–200.5–80.8–22
NaCl optimum (%)105  551558–14
Temp range (°C)5–454–370–30ND20–4525–4020–60
pH range5–104.5–9.65–95–96–85.8–9.5
Acid production from:
 ArabinoseND+NDND
 Glucose+ND++
 LactoseND+NDND
 Trehalose+NDNDNDNDND
 Mannitol+NDND+NDND
Hydrolysis of:
 Gelatin++d+ND
 Casein++ND
 Starch++ND
 Esculin++++NDND
 Tween 80dND+++NDND
 DNAdND++ND
H2S productiondND
Nitrate reduction+++
Nitrite reductionND
PhosphataseND++NDND
Type strainNCIMB 701DSM 3050DSM 5423DSM 5424ATCC 49307ATCC 29478DSM 5002
HabitatSalternsGreat Salt LakeHypersaline Antarctic lakeHypersaline Antarctic lakePetroleum reservoir producing fluidSolar LakeSolar Lake
G+C content (mol%)49.4–50.557.035–3939–41676262–64
Phylogenetic branchGammaProteobacteria ND Flavobacterium-Bacteroides Flavobacterium-Bacteroides GammaProteobacteria SpirochetesND
  • a +, positive; −, negative; d, differs among strains; ND, not determined.