Table 3.

Cytokine induction by P. gingivalis and its cellular constituentsa

InducerCell(s) of originCytokinePro- or anti-inflammatory actionb
P. gingivalisLPSFibroblastsIL-1α+
IL-1β+
IL-6+
IL-8+
MCP-1+
Monocytes/macrophagesIL-1β+
TNF-α+
IL-1rac
IL-6+
IL-8+
GM-CSFc +
IFN-γ+
PMNsTNFα+
IL-8+
IL-1ra
P. gingivalis lipid A-associated proteinsFibroblastsIL-6+
P. gingivalis fimbriaeFibroblastsIL-1β+
Monocytes/macrophagesIL-1α+
IL-1β+
TNF-α+
IL-6+
IL-8+
KCc +
Calvarial bone cellsIL-1β+
GM-CSF+
PMNsIL-6+
T cellsIL-2+
IL-4
TNF-α+
IFN-γc +
P. gingivalis 75-kDa surface proteinMonocytes/macrophagesIL-1+
P. gingivalis 12-kDa antigenMonocytes/macrophagesIL-1β+
P. gingivalisPSMonocytes/macrophagesIL-1β+
P. gingivalis whole cellsPMNsIL-8+
MCP-1+
  • a Compiled from references 90,92, 93, 116, 142, 168, 181, 184, 186, 187, 221, 239, 272, 275, 276,278, and 281.

  • b +, proinflammatory action; −, anti-inflammatory action.

  • c IL-1ra, IL-1 receptor antagonist; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; KC, neutrophil chemoaltractant killer cells; IFN-γ, gamma interferon.