TABLE 2.

Transcriptional regulators of the HOG pathway

ProteinFamilyFunctionEvidenceReference(s)
Sko1/Acr1pbZIP, CREBRepressor; also needed for activation from CREs (target genes in Table 3)Hog1p target in vitro and in vivo; genetic evidence, promoter association481
Msn2p/Msn4pZinc fingerActivator; binds to STREs (CCCCT) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent gene expressionTarget genes depend on Hog1p under osmotic stress; STRE-dependent reporter depends on Msn2p/Msn4p and HOG pathway501, 533
Hot1pNovel helix-loop-helixActivator; present together with Hog1p on some target promoters; needed for normal expression of some genes (Table 4)Interaction with Hog1p, Hog1p-dependent phosphorylation, promoter association9, 503
Smp1MADS boxActivatorHog1p targetF. Posas, personal communication
Msn1pNovel helix-loop-helixActivator; also involved in pseudohyphal growth and many more processesRequired for full expression of some Hog1p targets503
Sgd1pZinc fingerPutative activatorOverexpression suppresses hog1Δ and pbs2Δ osmosensitivity4
Gen4pbZIPActivator; required for stimulated expression of genes under general amino acid controlRequired for Hog1p-dependent activation of HAL1 expression from CRE455
Skn7pHeat shock factorActivator; involved in numerous cellular processes, such as oxidative stress response and cell wall metabolismPart of Sln1p-Ypd1p phosphorelay, activates hypo-osmotic genes69