TABLE 4.

Continuous culture using cellulosic substrates

Substrate and organism(s)Feed concn (g/liter)Particle size (μm)Substrate deliveryFeeding intervalReference(s)
Pure cultures of cellulolytic micoorganisms
    Anaerobic
        Ball-milled filter paper; Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Clostridium polysaccharolyticum1Pinch valveVariable337, 338, 469
        Avicel, pretreated wood; Clostridium thermocellum5-1420, 250Peristaltic pump<1 min407, 409
        Avicel; Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithiti1120Recirculating loop and valve60 min450, 516-518
        Unspecified; thermophilic isolate10Peristaltic pump620
        Avicel; Piromyces sp. ± Methanobacterium formicum520Peristaltic pump30 min675
        Sigmacell; Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenesSelenomonas ruminantium or Streptococcus bovis)545Peristaltic pump with segmented gas/liquid delivery<1 min104, 157, 158, 617, 727, 735, 740
    Aerobic
        Cerelose; Trichoderma viride (reesei)25Peristaltic pump84
        Avicel; Thermomonospora sp. strain N-355Peristaltic pump with recirculation loopContinuous445
        Solka Floc; Trichoderma reesei20250
        Purified powdered cotton; Trichoderma reesei553Peristaltic pump210
        Ball-milled wood; Trichoderma viride (reesei)5-11Peristaltic pump15 min535
Pure cultures of noncellulolytic microorganisms with added cellulase
    Delignified rice straw; Pichia stipitis10286, 287
    Paper sludge; Saccharomyces cerevisiae100-200SolidPiston pump8 hZ. Fan and L. R. Lynd, submitted
    Pretreated wood; Saccharomyces cerevisiae8-100250Progressing cavity pump1 min632
Nonsterile mixed cellulolytic cultures
    Avicel; cellulosic enrichment4-1420, 50Pump (unspecified)Intermittent111
    α-floc; anaerobic digester inoculum5-23Daily213
    Paper; thermophilic enrichment from compost102,000-3,000Daily344