TABLE 1.

Major morphological features of cellulolytic bacteria

Oxygen relationshipGenusRepresentative speciesaGram reactionMorphologyGrowth temp.bResting stateMotilityFeatures of cellulase systemReferences
AerobicAcidothermusA. cellulolyticus+RodThermoNoncomplexed, cell free48
BacillusB. pumilis+RodMesoEndosporeFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free220
CaldibacillusC. cellovorans+RodThermoEndosporeNoncomplexed, cell free48
CellulomonascC. flavigena, C. uda+RodThermoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free25, 26, 493
CellvibrioC. fulvus, C. gilvusCurved rodMesoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free612
CytophagaC. hutchinsoniiRodMesoNoneGlidingNoncomplexed?, cell free?322, 384
ErwiniaC. carotovoraRodMesoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free29
MicromonosporaM. chalcae+Filamentous rodMesoSporedNonmotileNoncomplexed, cell free200, 215
PseudomonasP. fluorescens var. cellulosaRodMesoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free331
SporocytophagaS. myxococcoidesRodMesoSporedGlidingNoncomplexed, cell free697
RhodothermusR. marinusRodThermo11, 48
StreptomycesS. reticuli+Filamentous rodMesoSporedNonmotileNoncomplexed, cell free715
ThermobifidaT. fusca+Filamentous rodThermoSporedNonmotileNoncomplexed, cell free777
AnaerobicAcetivibrioD. cellulolyticusCurved rodMesoNoneNonmotileComplexed327, 387, 589
AnaerocellumD. thermophilum+RodThermoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free659
ButyrivibrioB. fibrisolvens+Curved rodMesoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed294
CaldicellulosiruptorC. saccharolyticumRodThermoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free549
ClostridiumC. thermocellum, C. cellulolyticum+RodThermo, mesoEndosporeFlagellarComplexed, mostly cell boundc392, 415, 485, 532, 613
EubacteriumE. cellulosolvens+RodMesoNoneNonmotile699
FervidobacteriumF. islandicumRodThermoNoneFlagellar292
FibrobacterF. succinogenesRodMesoNoneNonmotileComplexed, cell bound88, 294, 463, 645
HalocellaH. cellulolyticaRodMesoNoneFlagellarNoncomplexed, cell free622
RuminococcusR. albus, R. flavefaciens+CoccusMesoNoneNonmotileComplexed, cell bound88, 294
SpirochaetaS. thermophila+SpiralThermoNoneNoncomplexed, cell free8, 48
ThermotogaT. neapolitanaRodThermo48
  • a Not all strains of the indicated species are cellulolytic, and some less active or less studied cellulolytic species within these genera are not listed.

  • b Meso, mesophilic; Thermo, themophilic.

  • c Most strains can also grow anaerobically.

  • d Unlike true endospores, these spores have only moderate resistance to environmental stress.

  • e Except for C. stercorarium (81, 83, 606).