Table 1.

Comparative oral microbiota in human and animals

GroupMicrobial genusPresent in:
HumansaMonkeysbRatscMiced
Gram-positive cocci
 Aerobic or facultative Streptococcus ++e ++++++
Staphylococcus ++++
Enterococcus +++++
Micrococcus +
 Obligate anaerobes Peptostreptococcus ++
Peptococcus ++
Gram-positive rods
 Aerobic or facultative Lactobacillus ++++++
Corynebacterium +++
Actinomyces ++++
Arachnia +
Rothia +
Alcaligenes +
 Obligate anaerobes Eubacterium ++
Propionibacterium +++
Bifidobacterium +
Bacillus ±±++±
Clostridium ±±±±
Gram-negative cocci
 Aerobic or facultative Neisseria/Branhamella ++++
 Obligate anaerobes Veillonella +++++
Gram-negative rods
 Aerobic or facultative Enterobacteriaceae ++±
Campylobacter ++
Eikenella +
Actinobacillus ++
Capnocytophaga ++
Haemophilus ++
Simonsiella +
 Obligate anaerobes Bacteroides ++++
Fusobacterium +++
Porphyromonas +++
Prevotella +++
Leptotrichia ++
Wolinella/Selenomonas ++
Other microorganisms Mycoplasma +NANA
Candida +NANA
Spirochetes+++
Protozoa+++
  • a Data from references299, 350, and495.

  • b Combined data from the macaque (306,438) marmoset (61), and squirrel monkey (26).

  • c Data from reference 204.

  • d Combined data from six mouse strains (BALB/c, CD-1, C3H/He, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and C57BL/10) (150, 396, 500).

  • e ++, isolated frequently and may constitute a high percentage of the total oral microbiota; +, isolated; ±, appears as transient; −, not isolated; NA, data not available.