Table 8.

Active immunity against mutans streptococci in nonhuman primates

Immunization routeAntigensAdjuvant or vehicleIncrease in:Reduction in S. mutans countsProtection against cariesReference(s)
Salivary IgA antibody levelsSalivary or serum IgG antibody level
SubcutaneousWhole cellsComplete Freund adjuvantNoYesYesYes 78,261-264
SubmucosalWhole cells, glucosyltransferaseNoneYesYesYes/noa Yes/noa 46
IntraductalWhole cells, glucosyltransferaseNoneYesYesYesNTb 129,133, 272, 517
TopicalAntigen I/IIDimethyl sulfoxideYesYesYesNT 259, 260
IntranasalAntigen I/IICholera toxinYesYesNTNT 412
OralWhole cells, antigen I/IICapsule, aluminum phosphate, cholera toxinYes/noc Yes/noc NoNo 78,264, 272, 326, 517
  • a Immunization with whole cells was protective, but immunization with crude glucosyltransferase resulted in an increase in colonization by S. mutans and no protection against caries.

  • b NT, not tested.

  • c Slight or no increase in salivary and serum antibody levels.