Table 1.

Representative PAS domain-containing proteins from the three kingdoms of life

Protein or open reading frame and speciesDescriptionAccession no.a
Bacteria
 Proteobacteria
  α-Subdivision
   FixL (Sinorhizobium meliloti)Sensor kinase, oxygen-dependent regulator of nitrogen fixationP: S39984
   EsxG (Sinorhizobium meliloti)Sensor kinase controlling succinoglycan synthesisGB: AJ225561
   NtrY (Azorhizobium caulinodans)Sensor kinase controlling nitrogen levelSP: Q04850
   NwsA (Bradyrhizobium japonicum)Sensor kinase controlling nodulation responseP:S39901
   NodV (Bradyrhizobium japonicum)Sensor kinase controlling nodulation responseSP: P15939
   NtrB (Azospirillum brasilense)Sensor kinase controlling nitrogen assimilationP: I39493
   PpsR (Rhodobacter sphaeroides)Sensor kinase, redox-dependent regulator of photosynthesisGB: L37197
   DctS (Rhodobacter capsulatus)Sensor kinase controlling dicarboxylate transportSP: P37739
   PleC (Caulobacter crescentus)Sensor kinase controlling polar organelle developmentP: S27533
   McpA (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)Chemotaxis transducer (?)GB: AF010180
  β-Subdivision
   TutC (Thauera sp. strain T1)Sensor kinase controlling toluene degradationGB: U57900
   BvgS (Bordetella bronchiseptica)Sensor kinase controlling virulenceP: S17944
  γ-Subdivision
   Aer (Escherichia coli)Oxygen (redox) taxis transducerSP: P50466
   ArcB (Escherichia coli)Sensor kinase, redox-dependent regulator of aerobic metabolismSP: P22763
   PhoR (Escherichia coli)Sensor kinase controlling phosphate regulonSP: P08400
   ATOS (Escherichia coli)Sensor kinase controlling ornithine decarboxylase antizymeSP: Q06067
   TodS (Pseudomonas putida)Sensor kinase controlling toluene degradationGB: U72354
   StyS (Pseudomonas sp.)Sensor kinase controlling styrene degradationGB: AJ000330
   NifL (Azotobacter vinelandii)Sensor, redox-dependent regulator of nitrogen fixationSP: P30663
  δ-subdivision
   SdeK (Myxococcus xanthus)Sensor kinase controlling fruiting-body developmentGB: AF031084
   DcrA (Desulfovibrio vulgaris)Oxygen (redox) taxis transducer (?)SP: P35841
 Cyanobacteria
  RcaE (Fremyella diplosiphon)Sensor kinase, phytochrome/ethylene receptorGB: U59741
  Sll1003 (Synechocystissp.)Sensor kinase (?)GB: D90902
  Slr1212 (Synechocystis sp.)Sensor, ethylene response regulator (?)GB: D90905
 Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria
  KinA (Bacillus subtilis)Sensor kinase controlling sporulationSP: P16497
  KinC (Bacillus subtilis)Sensor kinase controlling sporulationSP: P39764
 Aquificales
  HksP2 (Aquifex aeolicus)Sensor kinase (?)GB: AE000683
Archaea
 Euryarchaeota
  Bat (Halobacterium salinarum)Sensor, oxygen-dependent bacterio-opsin activatorSP: P13260
  AF0277 (Archaeoglobus fulgidis)Sensor kinase (?)GB: AE001086
  AF1034 (Archaeoglobus fulgidis)Chemotaxis transducer (?)GB:AE001032
  MTH174 (Methanobacterium ther-moautotrophicum)Sensor kinase (?)GB: AE000805
Eucarya
 Dictyosteliida
  DokA (Dictyostelium discoideum)Sensor kinase controlling osmotic responseGB: X96869
 Fungi
  Hemiascomycetes
   YB89 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)Transcriptional regulator (?)SP: P38140
  Euascomycetes
   Wc-1 (Neurospora crassa)Transcriptional regulator of the blue-light responseGB: X94300
   Wc-2 (Neurospora crassa)Phototransducer, clock componentGB: Y09119
   PBP (Fusarium solani)Transcriptional regulatorP: A57506
  Viridiplantae
   Charophyta
    Phy1b (Mesotaenium caldariorum)Phytochrome phototransducerGB: U31284
    Phy (Mougeotia scalaris)Phytochrome phototransducerGB: X95550
   Embryophyta
    PhyBb(Arabidopsis thaliana)Phytochrome phototransducerSP:P14713
    NPH1 (Arabidopsis thaliana)Sensor kinase controlling phototropismGB: AF030864
 Metazoa
  Nematoda
   T01D3.2. (Caenorhabditis elegans)Single-minded protein (SIM) homologGB: Z81110
  Insecta
   PER (Drosophila melanogaster)Transcriptional regulator of circadian rhythmsSP: P07663
   ARNT (Drosophila melanogaster)Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)GB: AF016053
   SIM (Drosophila melanogaster)Global transcriptional regulatorSP: P05709
   EAG (Drosophila melanogaster)Voltage-sensitive potassium channel subunitSP: Q02280
  Actinopterygii
   ARNT (Oncrhynchus mykiss)Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)GB: U73840
  Mammalia
   CLOCK (Mus musculus)Transcriptional regulator of circadian rhythmsGB: AF000998
   ARNT (Mus musculus)Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)GB: U61405
   SIM1 (Mus musculus)Single-minded protein (SIM) homologGB: U40575
   m-EAG (Mus musculus)Voltage-sensitive potassium channel subunitGB: U04294
   HIF-1α (Mus musculus)Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α GB:U59496
   Humans
    ARNT (Homo sapiens)Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorGB:U61405
    h-ERG (Homo sapiens)Voltage-sensitive potassium channel subunitGB: U04270
    HIF-1α (Homo sapiens)Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α GB: U22431
    HIF-2β (Homo sapiens)Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α GB:U51626
  • a The accession number for each sequence is for the SWISS-PROT (SP), GenBank (GB), or PIR (P) database.

  • b Analogous proteins are found in more than 20 species from this taxonomic group.