Table 2.

Burst size based on in situ observations

Aquatic environmentNo. of viruses/burst (range)MethodCommentsReference(s)
Marine
 Raunefjorden, Norway50 (10–300)eLFWOa120
 Raunefjorden, Norwayca. 500eTEMbTEM observation of virus-like particles surrounding E. huxleyi cells33
 Bay of Århus, Denmark 100eLFWO39
 North Seaca. 400eVICcE. huxleyi44
 Gulf of Mexico, Tex.30 (21–45)VICAvg of maximum estimates of burst size from lysogens350
 Gulf of Mexico, Tex.21 (11–29)VICAvg of minimum estimates of burst size from lysogens350
 Aransas Pass, Tex.92–324Calc.dCalculation of cyanophage burst sizes from viral decay rate and contact rate312
 Gulf of Mexico, Tex.10–23 VICOligotrophic conditions357
29–64 VICMesotrophic conditions357
 Northern Adriatic Sea16–20 VICMesotrophic conditions342
 Northern Adriatic Seaca. 30 VICEutrophic conditions342
 Northern Adriatic Sea48 (28–51)VICEstimated burst sizes for different bacterial morphological groups347
Freshwater
 Lake Constance, Germany21–121eVIC121
 Danube River, Austria17–36 VICEstimated burst sizes for different bacterial morphological groups176
 Lake Plußsee
  Epilimnion34 (19–35)VIC344, 345
  Metalimnion44 (32–55)VIC344, 345
  Hypolimnion63 (44–87)VIC344, 345
  • a Lysis from without using streptomycin.

  • b TEM observations of lysed cells.

  • c Burst size estimated from the number of virus-like particles within visibly infected cells.

  • d Burst size necessary to support viral production or decay rate based on theoretical contact rates.

  • e Estimates are ranges of burst sizes from individual cells rather than an average burst size calculated from observations of several cells.