Table 6.

Predicted levels of virus-mediated mortality based on calculations utilizing virioplankton decay or loss rates and contact rate

Geographical location (reference)MethodViral loss rate/production rateBurst sizeHost mortalityComments
Virus mediateddFIC (%)
Raunefjorden, Norway (120)VLRa 0.54 h−1 502–24% h−1 8–13Burst size and FIC determined with streptomycin treatment
Lake Kalandsvannet, Norway (120)VLR0.44 h−1 502–24% h−1 2–16
Aarhus Bay, Denmark (39)VLR0.3 h−1 10072%12–29Estimated carbon flux through microbial loop
Bergen, Norway (33)VLRc 0.4 day−1 50025–100%Estimates specific to coccolithophorid host, Emiliania huxleyi; also reported FVIC data
California (97)VLR6.5% h−1(light)50 or 1009–33% day−1
4.5% h−1 (dark)
Danube River (176)VLRc 1.2–3.0% h−1 17–36 16–30%Calculated VDR for range of temperatures; also used FVIC method
Gulf of Mexico, Tex. (318)VDRb 0.41 day−1 504–13Avg rate of viral decay in dark conditions
Tampa Bay, Fla (136)VDR0.0042–1.1 h−1 50–18510–53% day−1 Range of known decay rates
Northern Adriatic Sea (343)VDR0.0042–1.1 h−1 5039–212% day−1 (5 m), 19–157% day−1 (22 m)Range of known decay rates
Woods Hole, Mass. (341)Contact rate0.005–3.2Adsorption coeficient of 2.4 × 10−6 ml/min used in calculation; estimates specific for marine Synechoccus host community
Gulf of Mexico, Tex. (312)VDRc 0.12 day−1 (inshore), 2.1 day−1(offshore)2502–7% day−1 Estimates specific for marine Synechoccus host community
Gulf of Mexico, Tex. (312)Contact ratec 92–3245–14% day−1 Adsorption coeficient of 2.4 × 10−6 ml/min used in calculation; burst size needed to balence decay rate
Inshore, Gulf of Mexico, Tex. (62)VDR0.82 day−1 722–10% day−1 Empirically determined adsorption coeficient of 1.4 × 10−9 ml/min used in calculation; viral production rate (0.79 day−1) calculated from net change in MpV abundance minusMpV decay rate
Gulf of Mexico, Tex. (101)VDR0.5–0.75 day−1 811–8% day−1 Specific for cyanophage; 1–3% of cyanophage-Synechoccus contacts result in infection
  • a Viral loss rate method (viral loss rates based on reduction in VDC after addition of cyanide).

  • b Viral decay rate method.

  • c Study utilized two methods for estimation of virus-mediated mortality.

  • d Net bacterioplankton mortality unless otherwise indicated.