Table 2.

Summary of known FAT substratesa

FAT substrateKnown function in vivoKnown FAT enzyme in vitroFunctional effect of acetylationObserved or predicted effect on transcription
Nonhistone chromatin proteins
 HMG1Chromatin componentp300/CBPNDND
 HMG2Chromatin componentNDNDND
 Yeast Sin1Transcriptional regulatorLikely Gcn5NDND
 HMG14Nucleosome bindingp300/CBPNucleosome binding weakenedND
 HMG17Nucleosome bindingPCAFNucleosome binding weakenedND
 HMG I(Y)Enhanceosome componentPCAFEnhanceosome assemblyb Positiveb
p300/CBPEnhanceosome disruptionNegative
Transcriptional activators
 p53Tumor suppressorPCAF, p300/CBPIncreased DNA bindingPositive
 c-MybCell proliferation, differentiationp300/CBP, GCN5Increased DNA bindingPositive
 GATA-1Blood cell differentiationp300/CBPDNA binding may be affectedPositive
 EKLFGlobin gene expressionp300/CBPInhibitory domain modifiedPositive
 MyoDMuscle differentiationPCAFIncreased DNA bindingPositive
 E2FCell cycle controlPCAFIncreased DNA bindingPositive
 dTCFDevelopmental regulationp300/CBPCoactivator interaction disruptedNegative
 HIV TatHIV-1 transactivationPCAFIncreased CDK9 bindingPositive
p300/CBPRelease from TAR RNAPositive
Nuclear receptor coactivatorsTranscriptional response to hormone signals
 ACTRp300/CBPReceptor interaction disruptedNegative
 SRC-1p300/CBPNDND
 TIF2p300/CBPNDND
General transcription factorsGeneral transcriptional machinery components
 TFIIEPCAF, p300/CBP, TAFII250NDND
 TFIIFPCAF, p300/CBPNDND
Importin-α7, Rch1Nuclear importp300/CBPIncreased importin-β bindingND (may be unrelated to transcription)
α-TubulinMicrotubule componentNDND; stabilized microtubules become acetylatedND (may be unrelated to transcription)
  • a The FAT substrates characterized in vitro were human, mouse, or rat versions with the exception of yeast Sin1 and Drosophila TCF. The other substrates (HMG2 and α-tubulin) have unknown FAT enzymes but were observed to contain one or more acetylated internal lysines in various cell extracts. ND, not determined.

  • b D. Thanos, personal communication.