Table 14.

Classification of primary carriers according to substrate specificity (excluding macromolecular transporters)

Substrate (polarity)TC no.FamilyEnergy sourceOrganismal group
I.C.1. Inorganic cations: monovalent
 H+(both)3.A.2.1.1, 1.3, and 2.A.3F-ATPaseATPB, mito, chloro
 H+(out)3.A.2.2.1F (V)-ATPaseATPB, E
 H+(out?)3.A.2.3.1F (A)-ATPaseATPA
 H+(out?)3.A.3.1.2P-ATPaseATPAn
 H+(out)3.A.3.3.1P-ATPaseATPA, E
 H+(into vacuoles)3.A.10.1.1H+-PPasePyrophosphateB, Pl
 H+ (out)3.D.1.1.1–3NDHElectron flowB, mito
 H+(both)3.D.2.1–4PTHHydride transferB, mito
 H+ (out)3.D.3.1–5QCRElectron flowB, mito, chloro
 H+(out)3.D.4.1–7COXElectron flowB, A, mito
 H+ (in?) or Na+(in?)3.D.6.1.1NFOElectron flowB
 H+(out)3.D.7.1.1HHOElectron flowA
 H+(out)3.D.8.1.1FMF-DHElectron flowA
 H+(out)3.E.1.1.1 and 3FARLight drivenA
 H+ (out)3.E.2.2.1–2PRCLight drivenB, chloro
 K+ (in)3.A.3.1.1P-ATPaseATPAn
 K+ (in)3.A.3.1.2P-ATPaseATPAn
 K+ (in)3.A.3.3.1P-ATPaseATPPr, F, Pl
 K+ (in)3.A.3.7.1P-ATPaseATPB
 Na+ (out)3.A.1.115.1ABCATPB
 Na+ (both)3.A.2.1.2F-ATPaseATPB
 Na+ (out)3.A.2.2.2F (V)-ATPaseATPB
 Na+ (out)3.A.3.1.1P-ATPaseATPAn
 Na+ (out)3.A.3.9.1P-ATPaseATPY
 Na+ (out)3.B.1.1.1NaT-DCOxaloacetate decarboxylationB
 Na+(out)3.B.1.1.2NaT-DCMethylmalonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylationB
 Na+(out)3.B.1.1.3NaT-DCGlutaconyl-coenzyme A decarboxylationB
 Na+(out)3.B.1.1.4NaT-DCMalonate decarboxylationB
 Na+ (out)3.D.1.1.1NDHElectron flowB, mito
 Na+(out)3.D.5.1.1Na-NDHElectron flowB
 Na+ (out)3.D.8.1.1FMF-DHElectron flowA
 Na+ (out)3.C.1.1.1NaT-MMMMethyl transferA
I.C.2. Inorganic cations: di- and trivalent
 Ca2+ (out)3.A.3.2.1–4; 1.B.2P-ATPaseATPB, E
 Cd2+(out)3.A.1.207.1ABCATPY
 Cd2+(out)3.A.3.6.1 and 2P-ATPaseATPB, F, Pr, Pl
 Co2+ (in)3.A.1.18.1ABCATPB
 Co2+ (out)3.A.3.6.2P-ATPaseATPB
 Cu2+ (in)3.A.3.5.1P-ATPaseATPB, E
 Cu2+ (out)3.A.3.5.2–3P-ATPaseATPB, E
 Fe3+ (in)3.A.1.10.1ABCATPB
 Fe2+ (in)3.A.1.15.4 and 6ABCATPB
 Fe2+ (in)3.A.1.20.1ABCATPB
 Fe2+ (in)9.A.8.1.1FeoBATP or PMF(?)B
 Fe chelates3.A.1.14.1–5ABCATPB
 Metal conjugates (out)3.A.1.203 and 210ABCATPY, An
 Mg2+ (in)3.A.3.4.1P-ATPaseATPB
 Mn2+ (in)3.A.1.15.1ABCATPB
 Mn2+ (out)3.A.3.2.3P-ATPaseATPY
 Ni2+ (in)3.A.1.5.3ABCATPB
 Ni2+ (out)3.A.3.6.2P-ATPaseATPB
 Pb2+ (out)3.A.3.6.2P-ATPaseATPB
 Zn2+ (in)3.A.1.15.2, 3, 5, and 6ABCATPB
 Zn2+ (out)3.A.3.6.1 and 2P-ATPaseATPB
I.D. Inorganic anions
 Antimonite (out)3.A.4.1.1ArsABATPB
 Arsenite (out)3.A.4.1.1ArsABATPB
 Bicarbonate (in)3.A.1.16.3ABCATPB
 Chloride (in)3.E.1.2.1FAR (halorhodopsin)Light drivenA
 Chloride (none)3.A.1.62.1ABC (CFTR)Channel (ATP activated)An
 Cyanate (in)3.A.1.16.2ABCATPB
 Molybdate (in)3.A.1.8.1ABCATPB
 Nitrate (in)3.A.1.16.1ABCATPB
 Nitrite (in)3.A.1.16.1ABCATPB
 Phosphate (in)3.A.1.7.1ABCATPB
 Sulfate (in)3.A.1.6.1ABCATPB
 Tellurite (out)3.A.4.1.1ArsATPB
 Thiosulfate (in)3.A.1.6.1ABCATPB
II.A. Sugars and polyols
N-Acetylgalactosamine4.A.6.1.4PTSPEPB
N-Acetylglucosamine4.A.1.1.2PTSPEPB
N-Acetylglucosamine4.A.6.1.1–2PTSPEPB
 Allose3.A.1.2.6ABCATPB
 Arabinose3.A.1.2.2ABCATPB
 Arabinose3.A.1.2.5ABCATPB
 Arbutin4.A.1.2.2–3PTSPEPB
 Cellobiose4.A.1.2.2–3PTSPEPB
 Cellobiose4.A.3.1.2PTSPEPB
 Cyclodextrins3.A.1.1.6ABCATPB
 Diacetylchitobiose4.A.3.2.1PTSPEPB
 Fructose4.A.2.1.1PTSPEPB
 Fructose4.A.6.1.1–2PTSPEPB
 Fucose3.A.1.2.5ABCATPB
 Galactitol4.A.5.1.1PTSPEPB
 Galactose3.A.1.2.3ABCATPB
 Galactose3.A.1.2.5ABCATPB
 Glucitol3.A.1.1.5ABCATPB
 Glucitol4.A.4.1.1PTSPEPB
 Glucosamine4.A.6.1.1–2PTSPEPB
 Glucose3.A.1.2.3ABCATPB
 Glucose3.A.1.2.5ABCATPB
 Glucose4.A.1.1.1PTSPEPB
 Glucose4.A.6.1.1–2PTSPEPB
 β-Glucosides4.A.1.2.2–3PTSPEPB
 Lactose3.A.1.1.4ABCPEPB
 Lactose4.A.3.1.1PTSPEPB
 Lichenan oligosaccharides4.A.3.2.2PTSPEPB
 Maltooligosaccharides3.A.1.1.1ABCATPB
 Maltose3.A.1.1.1, -7, -8ABCATPB
 Maltose4.A.1.1.3PTSPEPB
 Mannitol3.A.1.1.5ABCATPB
 Mannitol4.A.2.1.2PTSPEPB
 Mannose4.A.6.1.1–2PTSPEPB
 Melibiose3.A.1.1.2ABCATPB
 Multiple sugars3.A.1.1.2, -2.5, -3.1ABCATPB
 Raffinose3.A.1.1.2ABCATPB
 Ribose3.A.1.2.1ABCPEPB
 Salicin4.A.1.2.2–3PTSPEPB
 Sorbose4.A.6.1.3PTSPEPB
 Sucrose3.A.1.1.8ABCATPB
 Sucrose4.A.1.2.1PTSPEPB
 Trehalose3.A.1.1.7, -8ABCATPB
 Trehalose4.A.1.2.4PTSPEPB
 Xylose3.A.1.2.4ABCATPB
 Xylose3.A.1.2.5ABCATPB
II.B.  Fatty acids
 Fatty acids (long chain)3.A.1.203.1–2ABCATPAn, Y
II.D.  Organoanions (phosphates, phosphonates, sulfonates) (uptake)
 2-Aminoethyl phosphonate3.A.1.11.5ABCATPB
 2-Aminoethyl sulfonate (taurine)3.A.1.17.1ABCATPB
 Glucuronate3.A.1.1.9ABCATPB
 Glycerol phosphate3.A.1.1.3ABCATPB
 Phosphates (organic)3.A.1.9.1ABCATPB
 Phosphonates (organic)3.A.1.9.1ABCATPB
 Taurine3.A.1.17.1ABCATPB
III.A. Amino acids and derivatives (uptake)
 Agrocinopine3.A.1.5.4ABCATPB
 Arginine3.A.1.3.1, -3, -11ABCATPB
 Asparagine3.A.1.3.7ABCATPB
 Aspartate3.A.1.3.4ABCATPB
 Aspartate3.A.1.3.7ABCATPB
 Chrysopine3.A.1.11.4ABCATPB
 Cystine3.A.1.3.10ABCATPB
 Diaminopimelate3.A.1.3.10ABCATPB
 Generall-amino acids3.A.1.3.8ABCATPB
 Glutamate3.A.1.3.4ABCATPB
 Glutamate3.A.1.3.7ABCATPB
 Glutamate3.A.1.3.9ABCATPB
 Glutamine3.A.1.3.2ABCATPB
 Glutamine3.A.1.3.7ABCATPB
 Glycine betaine3.A.1.12.1–2ABCATPB
 Glycine betaine3.A.1.12.4ABCATPB
 Histidine3.A.1.3.1ABCATPB
 Isoleucine3.A.1.4.1ABCATPB
 Leucine3.A.1.4.1ABCATPB
 Lysine3.A.1.3.1ABCATPB
 Mannopine3.A.1.11.3ABCATPB
 Nopaline3.A.1.3.6ABCATPB
 Octopine3.A.1.3.5ABCATPB
 Ornithine3.A.1.3.1, -11ABCATPB
 Proline3.A.1.12.1ABCATPB
 Valine3.A.1.4.1ABCATPB
III.B. Amines, amides, and polyamines (uptake)
 Amides, short chain?AmiS (B)ATP?B
 γ-Butyrobetaine3.A.1.12.1 and 4ABCATPB
d- andl-carnitine3.A.1.12.1 and 4ABCATPB
 Choline3.A.1.12.1 and 3–4ABCATPB
 Choline-O-sulfate3.A.1.12.4ABCATPB
 Crotonobetaine3.A.1.12.4ABCATPB
 Dimethylproline3.A.1.12.1ABCATPB
 Ectoine3.A.1.12.4ABCATPB
 Glycine betaine3.A.1.12.1, 2 and 4ABCATPB
 Homobetaine3.A.1.12.1ABCATPB
 Polyamines3.A.1.11.1ABCATPB
 Proline betaine3.A.1.12.1ABCATPB
 Putrescine3.A.1.11.1, -2ABCATPB
 Quaternary amines3.A.1.12.1–5ABCATPB
 Spermidine3.A.1.11.1ABCATPB
III.C. Peptides
a-Factor (sex pheromone) (out)3.A.1.206.1ABCATPY
 Cationic peptides (in)3.A.1.5.5ABCATPB
 Cyclic peptides (out)3.A.1.113.1ABCATPB
 Dipeptides (in)3.A.1.5.2ABCATPB
 Glutathione (oxidized) (out)3.A.1.207.1 and 208.2ABCATPAn
 Glutathione conjugates (out)3.A.1.207.1ABCATPAn
 MHC peptides (out)3.A.1.209.1ABCATPAn, Y
 Oligopeptides (in)3.A.1.5.1ABCATPB
 Peptide antibiotics (in)3.A.1.5.5ABCATPB
 Peptides (out)3.A.1.111–113, 116, 118ABCATPB
 Peptides (out)3.A.1.201.1ABCATPAn
 Protamines3.A.1.5.5ABCATPB
V.A. Vitamins
 Thiamine3.A.1.19.1ABCATPB
 Vitamin B12 (uptake)3.A.1.13.1ABCATPB
V.B. Enzyme and redox cofactors
 Eye pigment (export)3.A.1.204.1ABCATPAn
 Fatty acyl coenzyme A3.A.1.203.1–2ABCATPY, An (peroxysomes)
 Heme (hemin) (uptake)3.A.1.14.5ABCATPB
 Heme (hemin) (export)3.A.1.107.1ABCATPB
 Thiamine pyrophosphate3.A.1.19.1ABCATPB
V.C. Siderophores and Fe-siderophore complexes
 Fe-aerobactin3.A.1.14.3ABCATPB
 Fe chelates (many)3.A.1.15.4ABCATPB
 Fe-chrysobactine3.A.1.14.4ABCATPB
 Fe-coprogen3.A.1.14.3ABCATPB
 Fe-dicitrate3.A.1.14.1ABCATPB
 Fe-enterobactin3.A.1.14.2ABCATPB
 Fe-ferrichrome3.A.1.14.3ABCATPB
 Fe-ferrioxamine3.A.1.14.3ABCATPB
 Fe-hydroxamate3.A.1.14.3ABCATPB
 Siderophores (export)3.A.1.113, 119ABCATPB
VI.A. Multiple drugs (mostly efflux)
 Agrocin 84 (uptake)3.A.1.5.4ABCATPB
 Aminoglycoside antibiotics (uptake)3.A.1.5.1ABCATPB
 Multiple drugs3.A.1.108, 117, 119ABCATPG+ B
 Multiple drugs3.A.1.201, 205, 208, 210ABCATPB, F, Y, An, B
VI.B. Specific drugs (mostly efflux)
 Agrocin 84 (uptake)3.A.1.5.4ABCATPG− B
 Albomycin (uptake)3.A.1.14.3ABCATPG− B
 Daunorubicin3.A.1.105.1ABCATPG+ B
 Doxorubicin3.A.1.105.1ABCATPG+ B
 Erythromycin3.A.1.105.4ABCATPG+ B
 Lantibiotics3.A.1.114.1ABCATPG− B
 Macrolides3.A.1.105.3ABCATPG+ B
 Microcin B173.A.1.116.1ABCATPG− B
 Oleandomycin3.A.1.105.2ABCATPG+ B
 Oligomycin3.A.1.208.3ABCATPY
 Syringomycin3.A.1.113.1ABCATPG− B
 Tylosin3.A.1.105.5ABCATPG+ B
VI.C. Bile salts and conjugates
 Bile salts3.A.1.207.2 and 208.2ABCATPAn
 Bilirubin3.A.1.208.2ABCATPAn
 Bilirubin glucuronides3.A.1.208.2ABCATPAn
 Glucuronides3.A.1.208.2ABCATPAn
 Glutathione conjugates3.A.1.207.1ABCATPY
 Glutathione conjugates3.A.1.208.1–2ABCATPAn
 Leukotrienes3.A.1.208.1–2ABCATPAn
VI.D. Sterol and conjugates
 Steroids (export)3.A.1.205.1ABCATPY