Table 4.

Virus-mediated mortality based on the FVIC method

Geographical location (reference)MethodFVIC (%)Conversion factoraBurst sizeHost mortalityComments
FIC (%)Median FIC (%)Virus mediated (%)
Marine
 Sargasso and Caribbean Seas (256)TSb 3.21032Heterotrophic bacteria
TS1.51015Cyanobacteria
 Pacific Ocean (255)TS0.7–3.72.33–102–3719.5Particle-associated bacteria
 Pacific Ocean (258)TS0.9–4.33.70–7.143–31176–62Free-living bacteria; empirical determination of conversion factor for FVIC to FIC; recalculation based on FVIC values reported previously (256)
 Pacific Ocean (258)TS0.7–3.73.70–7.143–2614.56–52Particle-associated bacteria; recalculation based on FVIC values reported previously (255)
 Northern Adriatic Sea
  Mesotrophic (342)WCc ≅13.70–7.1416–203.5–7.35.43.5–24VTtd= 3.8–35.6 days (mesotrophic conditions)
  Eutrophic (342)WC1.9–2.73.70–7.1430–327–19.513.257.0–64.3VTt = 2–12.8 days (eutrophic conditions)
 Northern Adriatic Sea (348)WCmax. 4.23.70–7.1415.5–3023
 Santa Monica, Calif. (93)TSe 3.3–4.63.70–7.142024–6645Viral production rate method also employed
 Bering and Chukchi Seas (304)WCe 0.2–3.350192–36VTt = 0.38 to 9.8 days; also used viral production rate method
FVIC-positive correlation with both bacterial production and growth rate (P = 0.75)
 Solar salterns (37–372‰) (113)WC0–3.763.70–7.146–35<20For halophilic square archaea, burst size was 200 and 1.2–10% of cells were visibly infected
Freshwater
 Danube River (176)WCe 1–43.70–7.1417–365.4–2113.211–43Also used viral loss rate method
 Lake Constance, Germany (121)TS0–1.71021–1210–17924–34
 Lake Plußsee (345)WC1.3–2.53.70–7.147.7–97.3 Compared impact of viral lysis in different layers of stratified water column
TS1.5–3.3
  • a Dimensionless conversion factor relating FVIC to FIC.

  • b Frequency of infected cells determined from TEM examination of thin sections.

  • c Frequency of infected cells determined from TEM examination of whole cells.

  • d Virus turnover time.

  • e Study utilized two methods for estimation of virus-mediated mortality.