Table 3.

Decay rates of various bacteriophages in natural waters

PHSDecay rate (% h−1)Expt treatmentAssayReference
Coliphages
 MS25.2–4.4FWb Viablea 107
 F-RNAΦ 3.5 FW
 MS-21.2–32.5GWc Viable 377
 Coliphagen 0.4 SWd Viable 46
0.18Filt.eSW
0 AcSWf
 φX174n 15 SWViable 190
20 Filt. SW
 T7n 4–1.4EWg Viable 213
 T7n 3–1SWViable 27
0.8–0.5SW+clay
 T2n 6.7–4.8ASW,hSWViable 105
1.6–1.2ASW, SW+clay
Aquatic bacteriophages
 9 marine PHS 1 SWViable 194
 9 marine PHS 0.7 SWViable 197
0.2 Filt. SW
 UT1 5.4 FWViable 220
2.7 Filt. FW
 LB1VL-P1b 2.5 SWViable 318
 PWH3a-P1 1.4 SW
 Both phages40–80SW (sl)i
 PWH3a-P10.7–0.85SW (sl),Viable 357
Filt. SW (sl)
MpVo 0.4–0.25SW (d)j Viable 62
30–28SW (sl)
6 ASW(sl)
 CB 7Φ 3.7 ASW(d)Viable 369
 CB 38Φ 5.2 ASW(d)
11 ASW(sl)
 Both phage 2.8 ASW(sl+d)VDCj
 H series (4 marine PHS)6.6–11SW(sl), Filt. SW(sl), AcSW (sl)Viable 215
SW(d), FSW(d), AcSW
ca. 3.9(d)
 PR series (4 marine PHS)4.1–7.2SW(sl), Filt. SW(sl), AcSW (sl)
ca. 3.85SW(d), Filt. SW(d), AcSW (d)
 S-PWM 1 and 325–65Filt. SW(sl)Viable 101
Viroplankton loss
 Viroplankton (Danube River)6–8SW+KCNk, initial 4 h (5–15°C)VDC 176
8–15SW+KCN, initial 4 h (18–25°C)
2–5SW+KCN >5 h (all T°C)
 Virioplankton (Santa Monica, Calif.) 5.5 SW+KCN (d)VDC 97
6.9 SW+KCN (sl)
 Virioplankton (Ranuefjorden, Norway)54 SW+KCN(sl)VDC 120
30 SW+KCN(dph)m
 Virioplankton (Gulf of Mexico, Tex.)2.2–3.0SW(sl), Filt. SW(sl)Viable 101
0.14–0.5SW (d), Filt. SW (d)
 Virioplankton (Gulf of Mexico, Tex.)1–2.5SW+KCN (sl)VDC 357
  • a Decay assessed through loss of viable phage titer.

  • b Freshwater.

  • c Groundwater.

  • d Natural seawater.

  • e 0.22-μm-pore-size filtered.

  • f Autoclaved or heated seawater.

  • g Estuarine water.

  • h Artificial seawater.

  • i Sunlight.

  • j Dark.

  • k Natural seawater with added potassium cyanide.

  • l Surface water.

  • m At depth.

  • n Decay rate calculated from viral titers given in reference.

  • o Virus of Micromonas pusilla.