Table 11.

Classification of secondary carriers according to substrate specificitya

SubstrateTC no.FamilyEnergy source or mechanismOrganismal group
I.C. Inorganic cations: monovalent
 Ag+(efflux)2.A.6.1.3RNDAg+:H+antiportB
 H+2.A.33.1.1NhaAH+:Na+antiportB
 H+2.A.34.1.1NhaBH+:Na+antiportB
 H+2.A.35.1.1NhaCH+:Na+antiportB
 H+2.A.36.1.3–5CPA1H+:Na+antiportB, Y, An, Pl
 H+2.A.37.1–5CPA2H+:Na+antiportB, Y
 H+2.A.38.1–4TrkH+:K+symportB, Y, Pl
 H+2.A.62.1.1NhaDH+:Na+antiportB
 H+2.A.63.1.1–3CPA3H+:Na+or K+ antiportB
 H+ or OH2.A.29.3.1MCUniport (?)Mito
 K+2.A.19.3.2CaCAK+:Ca2+symport; Na+ or H+ antiportAn
 K+2.A.30.1–3, 7CCCNaCl:KCl symportAn, Pl
 K+2.A.30.5–6CCCKCl symportAn
 K+2.A.36.4.1CPA1K+:H+antiportY
 K+2.A.37.1–5CPA2K+:H+antiportB, Y
 K+2.A.38.1–4TrkK+ uptake (PMF?); K+:H+ or Na+ symportB, Y, Pl
 K+2.A.63.1.1CPA3K+:H+antiportB
 K+2.A.72.1–3KUPK+ uptake (K+:H+ or K+:Na+symport)B, Y, Pl
 Na+2.A.30.1–3CCCNaKCl2symportAn
 Na+2.A.30.4.1CCCNaCl symportAn
 Na+2.A.30.7.1CCCNaKCl2symportPl
 Na+2.A.33.1.1NhaANa+:H+antiportB
 Na+2.A.34.1.1NhaBNa+:H+antiportB
 Na+2.A.35.1.1NhaCNa+:H+antiportB
 Na+2.A.36.1–4CPA1Na+:H+antiportB, Y, An, Pl
 Na+2.A.37.2.1CPA2Na+:H+antiportB
 Na+2.A.38.3.1TrkNa+:K+symportPl
 Na+2.A.62.1.1NhaDNa+:H+antiportB
 Na+2.A.63.1.2–3CPA3Na+:H+antiportB
 NH3 or NH4+2.A.49AmtUniport?B, A, Y, Pl, An
I.C. Inorganic cations: di- and trivalent
 Al3+9.A.17.2.1MITUniport?Y
 Ca2+2.A.19.1–4CaCAH+ or Na+ antiportB, Y (vacuolar), Pl, An
 Cations, divalent; nonspecific9.A.17.1–2MITUniport?B, Y
 Cations, divalent; nonspecific2.A.3.10.1APC?Y, F
 Cations, divalent; nonspecific2.A.5.1.2ZIPPMF (uptake)Pl
 Cations, divalent; nonspecific2.A.55.1–2NrampH+ symportY, An
 Cd2+2.A.4.1.1CDFPMF? (efflux)B
 Cd2+2.A.4.2.2CDFPMF? (uptake)Mito
 Cd2+2.A.6.1.2RNDPMF (H+antiport)B
 Cd2+2.A.77.1.1CadDPMF (efflux)B
 Co2+2.A.4.1.1–2CDFPMF? (efflux)B
 Co2+2.A.4.2.1CDFPMF? (uptake)Mito
 Co2+2.A.6.1.1–2RNDH+antiportB
 Co2+9.A.17.1.1MITPMF? (uptake) (uniport?)B
 Co2+2.A.52.1.2NiCoTPMF? (uptake)B
 Cu2+9.A.11.1.1Ctr1PMF? (uptake)Y
 Cu2+9.A.12.1.1Ctr2PMF? (uptake)Y, Pr, Pl, An
 Fe2+2.A.5.1.2ZIPPMF?Y, Pl, An
 Fe2+9.A.17.1.1MITPMF? (uptake)B, A, Y
 Fe2+9.A.9.1.1FeTPMF? (uptake)Y
 Fe3+9.A.10.1.1OFeTPMF? (uptake)B, Y
 Hg2+9.A.2.1.1MerTPPMF? (uptake)B
 Hg2+9.A.3.1.1MerCPMF? (uptake)B
 Mg2+2.A.11.1.1CitMHSH+symportB
 Mg2+9.A.17.1.1MITPMF? (uptake)B
 Mg2+9.A.19.1.1MgtE?B, A
 Mn2+2.A.3.1.15APCPMF? (efflux)Y
 Mn2+2.A.5.2.1ZIPPMF (uptake)Y
 Mn2+2.A.19.2.2CaCAPMF (H+antiport)Y
 Mn2+9.A.17.2.2MITPMF? (efflux)Y
 Mn2+2.A.55.1.1–2NrampH+symport (uptake)B, A, Y, Pr, Pl, An
 Ni2+2.A.1.21.5MFSPMF? (efflux)B
 Ni2+2.A.6.1.1RNDH+antiportB
 Ni2+9.A.17.1.1MITPMF? (uptake)B
 Ni2+2.A.52.1.1NiCoTUniport? (uptake)B
 Zn2+2.A.4.1.1–2CDFPMF? (efflux)B
 Zn2+2.A.4.2.1–2CDFPMF? (uptake)Mito
 Zn2+2.A.4.2.3CDFPMF? (efflux)An
 Zn2+2.A.4.3.1CDFPMF? (uptake)An vesicles
 Zn2+2.A.5.1.1ZIPPMF? (uptake)Y, Pl, An
 Zn2+2.A.6.1.2RNDH+antiportB
I.D. Inorganic anions
 Antimonite2.A.45.1.1ArsBPMF (efflux)B
 Arsenite2.A.45.1.1ArsBPMF (efflux)B
 Arsenite2.A.59.1.1ACR3PMF (efflux)Y
 Bicarbonate2.A.31.1.1AEAnion antiportAn, Y
 Bicarbonate2.A.31.2.1AENa+ symportAn
 Bicarbonate2.A.73.1.1ICTH+symporter?B
 Chlorate2.A.17.3.1, -3POTH+ symportPl
 Chloride2.A.30.1–3CCCNa+:K+symportAn
 Chloride2.A.30.4.1CCCNa+symportAn
 Chloride2.A.30.5–6CCCK+symportAn
 Chloride2.A.30.7.1CCCNa+:K+symportPl
 Chloride2.A.31.1.1AEAnion antiportAn, Y
 Chromate2.A.51.1.1CHRPMF (efflux)B
 Cyanate2.A.1.17.1MFSH+symportB
 Inorganic anions (general)2.A.31.1.1AEAnion antiportAn, Y, F, Pl
 Inorganic monovalent anions (nonselective)2.A.21.5.1SSSNa+ symportAn
 Iodide2.A.21.5.1SSSNa+ symportAn
 Nitrate2.A.1.8.2–6MFSH+ symportB
 Nitrate2.A.17.3.1, 3POTH+ symportPl
 Nitrite2.A.1.8.1MFSUniport; H+antiport?B
 Nitrite2.A.44.3.1FNTH+symport?B
 Phosphate2.A.1.4.1–4MFSH+symport?; anion:anion antiportB
 Phosphate2.A.1.9.1–3MFSH+ symportY, F, Pl
 Phosphate2.A.1.14.6MFSNa+symportAn
 Phosphate2.A.20.1–3PitH+or Na+ symportB, A, F
 Phosphate2.A.29.4.1MCOHantiportMito
 Phosphate2.A.47.2.1DASSH+ symportY
 Phosphate2.A.58.1.1PNaSNa+ symportB, An
 Silicate2.A.32.1.1SitNa+symportDiatoms
 Sulfate2.A.29.15.1MCSS antiportY (mito)
 Sulfate2.A.47.1.2DASSNa+ symportAn
 Sulfate2.A.53.1–4SulPH+ symport or HCO3 antiportB, Y, F, Pl, An
 Sulfate2.A.51.1.2CHRH+ symport?B
 Thiosulfate2.A.29.15.1MCSS antiportY (mito)
 Tellurite2.A.16.1.1TDTPMF (efflux)B
II.A. Sugars and polyols
 Arabinitol2.A.1.18.1MFSH+ symportB
 Arabinose2.A.1.1.2MFSH+ symportB
 Arabinose2.A.1.2.14–15MFSH+antiportB
 Fructose2.A.1.1.13MFSH+symportAn
 Fructose2.A.1.1.16MFSUniportPr
l-Fucose2.A.1.7.1MFSH+symportB
 Galactose2.A.21.3.1–2SSSNa+symportB, An
 Galactose2.A.1.1.1MFSH+symportB
 Galactose2.A.1.1.2MFSH+symportB
 Galactose2.A.1.1.6MFSUniportY
 Galactose2.A.1.1.9MFSH+ symportY
 Galactose2.A.1.7.2MFSH+ symportB
 Glucose2.A.1.1.4MFSUniportY
 Glucose2.A.1.1.6MFSUniportY
 Glucose2.A.1.1.12MFSUniportAn
 Glucose2.A.1.1.16MFSUniportPr
 Glucose2.A.1.1.17MFS?Pr
 Glucose2.A.1.7.2MFSH+ symportB
 Glucose2.A.1.7.3MFSH+ symportB
 Glucose2.A.9.2.1RhaTH+ symportB
 Glucose2.A.21.3.1SSSNa+ symportAn
 Glucose2.A.21.3.1–4SSSNa+ symportB, An
 Glucose (sensor)2.A.1.1.18–19MFS?Y
 α-Glucosides2.A.1.1.11MFSH+symportY
 Glucuronide2.A.2.3.1GPHH+symportB
 Hexoses2.A.1.1.5MFSUniportY, An
 Hexoses2.A.1.1.14MFSH+symportPl
 Hexoses2.A.1.1.16MFSUniportPr
 Hexuronates2.A.1.14.2MFSH+ symportB
 Isoprimeverose2.A.2.3.3GPHH+ symportB
 Isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (efflux)2.A.1.20.1, -4MFSH+ antiportB
 Isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (efflux)2.A.1.2.15, -18MFSH+ antiportB
 Lactose2.A.1.1.9MFSH+ symportY
 Lactose (efflux)2.A.1.20.1, -2 and 4MFSH+antiportB
 Lactose2.A.1.5.1MFSH+symportB
 Lactose2.A.2.2.1GPHH+symportB
 Maltose2.A.1.1.10MFSH+symportY
 Maltose (efflux)2.A.1.20.1MFSH+ antiportB
 Mannose2.A.1.1.16MFSUniportPr
 Mannose2.A.1.7.3MFSH+ symportB
 Melibiose2.A.1.5.4MFSH+ symportB
 Melibiose (efflux)2.A.1.2.18MFSH+antiportB
 Melibiose2.A.2.1.1GPHH+ or Na+ symportB
 Multiple sugars2.A.1.20MFSH+ antiport
 Myoinositol2.A.1.1.8MFSH+ symportY
 Myoinositol2.A.1.1.20MFSH+ symportPr
 Myoinositol2.A.21.4.1SSSNa+ symportAn
 Pentosides2.A.2.3.2–3GPHH+ symportB
 Raffinose2.A.1.5.2MFSH+ symportB
 Raffinose2.A.2.2.2GPHH+ symportB
l-Rhamnose2.A.9.1.1RhaTH+symportB
 Ribitol2.A.1.18.2MFSH+symportB
 Ribose2.A.9.3.1RhaTH+symportB
 Sialic acid2.A.1.12.1MFSH+symportB
 Sucrose2.A.1.5.3MFSH+symportB
 Sucrose2.A.2.4.1GPHH+symportPl
 Sugars (efflux) (fairly nonspecific)2.A.1.20.1, -2, -4MFSH+ antiportB
 Xylose2.A.1.1.2MFSH+ symportB
 Xylose2.A.1.1.3MFSH+ symportB
II.B. Monocarboxylates
 Acetate2.A.44.4.1FNTH+ symportY
 Allantoate2.A.1.14.4MFSH+ symportY
 Auxin (indole 3-acetate)2.A.18.1.1AAAPH+symportPl
 Auxin (out)2.A.69.1.1AECUniport? H+ antiport?Pl
 Benzoate2.A.1.15.5MFSH+ symportB
 Benzoate2.A.46.1.1BenEH+ symportB
 Bile salts2.A.1.3.13MFSH+ symportB
 Bile salts2.A.6.2.5RNDH+ antiportB
 Bile salts2.A.28.1.1BASSNa+ symportAn
 Bile salts (conjugated)2.A.1.23.1MFSH+symportB
 Bile salts (conjugated and unconjugated)2.A.60.1OAT?An
 Bilirubin2.A.65.1.1BRTH+ symport?An
 Cyanate2.A.1.17.1MFSH+ symportB
 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetate2.A.1.15.3MFSH+ symportB
 Digoxin2.A.60.1.1OATUniport; anion antiportAn
 Fatty acids2.A.6.2.5RNDH+ antiportB
 Formate2.A.1.11.1MFSSS antiportB
 Formate2.A.44.1.1FNTEfflux?B
 Formate2.A.44.2.1FNTUptake?B
 Galacturonate2.A.1.14.2MFSH+ symportB
 Glucarate2.A.1.14.1MFSH+ symportB
 Gluconate2.A.8.1.1GntPH+ symportB
 Gluconate2.A.8.1.2GntPH+ symportB
 Glucuronate2.A.1.14.2MFSH+ symportB
 Hexuronate2.A.1.14.2MFSH+ symportB
 4-Hydroxybenzoate2.A.1.15.1MFSH+symportB
 3-Hydroxyphenyl acetate2.A.1.14.9MFSH+ symportB
 3-Hydroxyphenyl propionate2.A.1.15.2MFSH+symportB
l-Idonate2.A.8.1.2GntPH+symportB
 2-Keto-3-deoxygluconate2.A.10.1.1KDGTH+symportB
 Lactate2.A.1.12.2MFSH+symportY
 Lactate2.A.1.13.1MFSH+symportY, F, An
 Lactate2.A.14.1.1LctPH+ symportB
 Lactate2.A.24.3.2CCSSS antiportB
 Leucotrienes2.A.60.1.7OAT?An
 4-Methyl-o-phthalate2.A.1.6.5MFSH+symportB
 Mevalonate2.A.1.13.1MFSH+symportY, F, An
 Monocarboxylates2.A.1.13.1MFSH+symportY, F, An
 Organic anions (nonselective)2.A.1.19.4, -7, -8MFSH+ symport?An
cis,cis-Muconate2.A.1.15.4MFSH+symportB
 Organic anions (nonselective)2.A.1.19.4, -7, -8MFSH+ symport?An
 Organic anions (nonselective)2.A.21.5.2SSSNa+ symportAn
 Organic anions (nonselective)2.A.60.1OATUniport; anion antiportAn
 Organic anions (nonselective)2.A.65.1.1BRTH+ symport?An
 Phenylpropionate2.A.1.27.1MFSH+symportB
 Phenylacetate2.A.21.7.1SSSH+symportB
 Phthalate2.A.1.14.5MFSH+symportB
 Prostaglandins2.A.60.1.2, -7OATUniport; anion antiportAn
 Protocatechuate2.A.1.15.1MFSH+symportB
 Pyruvate2.A.1.12.1MFSH+symportY
 Pyruvate2.A.1.13.1MFSH+symportY, F, An
 Quinate2.A.1.1.7MFSH+symportF
 Shikimate2.A.1.6.6MFSH+symportB
 Sialate2.A.1.12.1MFSH+symportB
 Tartrate2.A.1.14.3MFSH+symportB
 Tartrate2.A.47.3.3DASSSS antiportB
 Taurocholate2.A.60.1.3, -7OAT?An
 Thromboxanes2.A.60.1.2, -7OAT?An
 Thyroid hormones (thyroxin; triiodothyronine)2.A.60.1.3OAT?An
II.C. Di- and tricarboxylates
 Citrate2.A.1.6.1MFSH+ symportB
 Citrate2.A.11.1.1CitMHSMg2+:H+symportB
 Citrate2.A.11.1.2CitMHSH+symportB
 Citrate2.A.24.1.1; 3.1, 3.2CCSNa+ symportB
 Citrate2.A.47.1.3, 3.2DASSNa+ symport; SS antiportB, An
 Dicarboxylates2.A.1.6.3MFSH+ symportB
 Dicarboxylates2.A.13.1.1–2DcuSS antiportB
 Dicarboxylates2.A.16.2.1TDTH+symportY
 Dicarboxylates2.A.23.1.3DAACSH+symportB
 Dicarboxylates2.A.29.2.1–2; 13.1MCSS antiportMito
 Dicarboxylates2.A.47.1.1, -3DASSNa+ symportAn
 Dicarboxylates2.A.47.3.1–3DASSSS antiportB, chloro
 Dicarboxylates2.A.56.1.1TRAP-TH+symportB
 Dicarboxylates2.A.61.1.1DcuCH+symportB
 α-Ketoglutarate2.A.1.6.2MFSH+symportB
 Malate2.A.16.2.1TDTH+symport?Y
 Malate2.A.24.2.1CCSH+symportB
 Malate2.A.69.3.1AECH+symport?B
 Malonate2.A.29.15.1MCSS antiportY (mito)
 Malonate2.A.69.2.1AECH+symport?B
 Malonate2.A.70.2.1MSSH+symport?B
 Malonate2.A.70.1.1MSSNa+symportB
 Oxalate2.A.1.11.1MFSSS antiportB
 Oxaloacetate2.A.29.15.1MCSS antiportY (mito)
 Tricarboxylates2.A.29.7.1MCSS antiportMito
 Tricarboxylates2.A.54.1.1MTCH+symportMito
II.D. Organic anions (noncarboxylates)
 Glucose-phosphate2.A.1.4.1MFSPiantiportB
 Glucose 6-phosphate (sensor)2.A.1.4.4MFS?B
 Glucose 6-phosphate2.A.1.4.5MFSPiantiportAn
 Glucose 6-phosphate2.A.50.2.1TP-NSTPiantiportPlastids (Pl)
 Phosphoglycerates2.A.1.4.2MFSPiantiportB
 Glycerolphosphate2.A.1.4.3MFSPiantiportB
 Hexosephosphates2.A.1.4.1MFSPiantiportB
 Phosphoenolpyruvate2.A.1.4.2MFSPiantiportB
 Phosphoenolpyruvate2.A.50.3.1TP-NSTPiantiportChloro (Pl)
 Sugar-phosphates2.A.1.4.1MFSPiantiportB
 Triosephosphate2.A.50.1.1TP-NSTPiantiportChloro (Pl)
 Triosephosphate2.A.50.2.1TP-NSTPiantiportPlastids (Pl)
III.A. Amino acids and conjugates
 Acidic amino acids2.A.3.10.13APCH+symportY
 Alanine2.A.3.1.7APCH+symportB
 Alanine2.A.25.1.1AGCSNa+symportB
 Alanine2.A.25.1.2AGCSNa+ or H+ symportB
 β-Alanine2.A.3.1.5APCH+ symportB
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.3.1.4APCH+symportB
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.3.1.5APCH+symportB
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.3.7.1APCGlutamate antiportB
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.18.5.1AAAPH+symport?An
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.22.3.1–2NSSNa+symportAn
 Arginine2.A.3.10.4APCH+symportY
 Arginine2.A.3.2.3APCAntiport with ornithineB
 Arginine2.A.65.1.1LysEH+antiport?B
 Aromatic amino acids2.A.3.1.3APCH+ symportB
 Asparagine2.A.3.1.8APCH+ symportB
 Asparagine2.A.3.10.7, -13APCH+symportY
 Aspartate2.A.13.1.1DcuSS antiportB
 Aspartate2.A.23.1.1DAACSH+ symportB
 Aspartate2.A.23.1.2DAACSH+ or Na+ symportB, An
 Aspartate2.A.23.2.1DAACSH+ or Na+ symportB, An
 Basic amino acids2.A.3.1.19APCH+ symportY
 Basic amino acids2.A.3.3.1, -2APCH+ symportAn
 Basic amino acids2.A.3.8.3APCUniport or H+ symportAn
 Basic amino acids2.A.29.9.1MCSS antiportMito
 Branched-chain amino acids2.A.3.10.11APCH+ symportY
 Branched-chain amino acids2.A.26.1.1–3LIVCSH+ or Na+symportB
 Cystine2.A.3.8.5APCGlutamate antiportAn
 Cystine2.A.43.1.1LCTH+antiportAn
 General amino acids (all l, somed)2.A.3.3.3APCH+ symportPl
 General amino acids2.A.3.10.2, -14APCH+symportY
 General amino acids2.A.18.2.1AAAPH+ symportPl
 Glutamate2.A.3.7.1APCγ-Aminobutyrate antiportB
 Glutamate2.A.3.8.5APCCystine antiportAn
 Glutamate2.A.3.10.13APCH+ symportY
 Glutamate2.A.23.1.1DAACSH+ symportB
 Glutamate2.A.23.1.2DAACSH+ or Na+ symportB, An
 Glutamate2.A.23.2.1DAACSH+ or Na+ symportB, An
 Glutamate2.A.23.2.2DAACSNa+ symportAn
 Glutamate2.A.27.1.1ESSNa+ symportB
 Glutamine2.A.3.7.1APCH+ symportB
 Glutamine2.A.3.10.5, -7APCH+ symportY
 Glycine2.A.3.1.7APCH+ symportB
 Glycine2.A.22.2.2NSSNa+ symportAn
 Glycine2.A.25.1.1AGCSNa+ symportB
 Histidine2.A.3.1.5, -9APCH+ symportY, F
 Histidine2.A.3.10.1APCH+ symportY
 Histidine2.A.17.3.2–3POTH+ symportPl
 Homoserine (efflux)2.A.76.1.1RhtBH+antiportB
 Homoserine lactone (efflux)2.A.76.1.1RhtBH+ antiportB
 Isoleucine2.A.3.10.6APCH+ symportY
 Isoleucine2.A.26.1.1–3LIVCSH+ or Na+ symportB
 Leucine2.A.3.10.6APCH+ symportY
 Leucine (sensor)2.A.3.10.12APC?Y
 Leucine2.A.26.1.1–3LIVCSH+ or Na+ symportB
 Lysine2.A.3.1.2APCH+symportB
 Lysine2.A.3.2.2APCSS antiportB
 Lysine2.A.3.2.4APC?B
 Lysine2.A.3.10.10APCH+ symportY
 Lysine (efflux)2.A.75.1.1LysEH+antiport?B
 Methionine2.A.3.8.4APCH+symportY
 Neutral amino acids2.A.3.8.1–3, -6APCUniport or H+ symportAn
 Neutral amino acids2.A.18.4.1AAAPH+ symportF
 Neutral amino acids2.A.23.3.1DAACSNa+symportAn
 Neutral and acidic amino acids2.A.23.3.2DAACSNa+ symportAn
 Neutral and basic amino acids2.A.23.3.3DAACSNa+ symportAn
  Ornithine2.A.3.2.1APCAntiport with putrescineB
 Ornithine2.A.3.2.3APCAntiport with arginineB
 Phenylalanine2.A.3.1.1APCH+ symportB
 Proline2.A.1.6.4MFSH+ symportB
 Proline2.A.3.1.6APCH+symportY
 Proline2.A.3.10.3APCH+symportY
 Proline2.A.15.1.2BCCTH+symportB
 Proline2.A.18.3.1AAAPH+symportPl
 Proline2.A.21.2.1SSSNa+symportB
 Proline2.A.22.2.1NSSNa+symportAn
 Serine2.A.3.1.7APCH+symportB
 Serine2.A.23.4.1DAACSNa+symportB
 Serine2.A.42.2.1HAAAPH+symportB
 Threonine2.A.3.1.9APCH+symportB
 Threonine2.A.23.4.1DAACSNa+symportB
 Threonine2.A.42.2.2HAAAPH+symportB
 Threonine (efflux)2.A.76.1.2RhtBH+ antiport?B
 Tryptophan2.A.3.1.16–17APCH+symportY
 Tryptophan2.A.22.4.1SSSNa+symportB
 Tryptophan2.A.42.1.2–3HAAAPH+symportB
 Tyrosine2.A.3.10.8, -9APCH+symportY
 Tyrosine2.A.42.1.1HAAAPH+symportB
 Tyrosine2.A.45.2.1ArsB?An
 Valine2.A.3.10.6, -9APCH+ symportY
 Valine2.A.26.1.1–3LIVCSH+ or Na+ symportB
III.B. Amines, amides, and polyamines
 Acetylcholine2.A.1.2.13MFSH+antiportAn
 Acylcarnitine2.A.1.19.3MFSUniport; Na+ symportAn
S-Adenosylmethionine2.A.3.10.15APCH+symportY
 Acylcarnitine2.A.29.8.1MCSS antiportMito
 Amines, organic (nonspecific)2.A.1.19.1–5MFSUniport?An
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.3.4.2APCH+symportF, Y
 γ-Aminobutyrate2.A.3.7.1APCH+symportB
 Auxin2.A.18.1.1AAAPH+symportPl
 Auxin2.A.69.1.1–2AECUniport; H+ antiport?Pl
 Betaine2.A.1.6.4MFSH+/Na+symportB
 Betaine2.A.23.3.1SSSNa+symportAn
 Butyrobetaine2.A.1.19.3MFSUniport; Na+ symportAn
 Cadaverine2.A.3.2.2APCAntiport with lysineB
 Carnitine2.A.1.19.3MFSUniport; Na+symportAn
 Carnitine2.A.15.2.1BCCTH+symportB
 Carnitine2.A.29.8.1MCSS antiportMito
 Choline2.A.3.4.1APCH+ symport?Y
 Choline2.A.15.3.1BCCTH+ symportB
 Choline2.A.22.3.5NSSNa+ symportAn
 Creatine2.A.22.3.4NSSNa+ symportAn
 Dopamine2.A.1.22.1MFS?An
 Dopamine2.A.22.1.3NSSNa+ symportAn
 Ectosine2.A.15.1.2BCCTH+ symportB
 Ethanolamine2.A.3.5.1APCH+ symportB
 Glycine betaine2.A.1.6.4MFSH+/Na+symportB
 Glycine betaine2.A.1.19.3MFSUniport; Na+ symportAn
 Glycine betaine2.A.15.1.1–2BCCTH+ symportB
 Glycine betaine2.A.22.3.1NSSNa+symportAn
 Guanidinium2.A.1.19.2MFSH+antiportAn
 Monoamines2.A.1.2.11MFSH+antiportAn
 Monoamines2.A.1.2.12MFSH+antiportAn
 Neurotransmitters (cationic)2.A.1.19.1MFSUniport?An
 Neurotransmitters (cationic)2.A.1.19.5–7MFSUniport?An
 Neurotransmitters (cationic)2.A.1.22.1MFSUniport or H+ or Na+ symportAn
 Noradrenaline2.A.22.1.2NSSNa+symportAn
 Organocations2.A.1.19.1–5MFSUniport or H+ or Na+ symportAn
 Polyamines (efflux)2.A.1.2.16MFSH+ antiportAn
 Putrescine2.A.3.2.1APCH+ symport; antiport with ornithineB
 Quaternary amines2.A.77.1.2CadDH+ antiport?B
 Serotonin2.A.22.1.1NSSNa+ symportAn
 Taurine2.A.22.3.3NSSNa+ symportAn
 Tetramethyl ammonium2.A.1.19.1MFSH+antiport; uniport?An
 Urea2.A.21.6.1SSS?Y
III.C. Peptides
 Glycopeptides, cell wall derived2.A.1.25.2MFSH+ symport?B
 Peptides2.A.17.1–4POTH+ symportB, Y, Pl, An
 Peptides2.A.67.1–2OPTH+symport?B, A, Y, Pl
 Peptides9.A.18PUP?B
 Peptides, antibacterial (efflux)2.A.6.2.5RNDH+antiportB
 Peptides, cell wall derived2.A.1.25.2MFSH+ symport?B
IV.A. Nucleobases
 Allantoin2.A.39.3.1NCS1H+symportY
 Cytosine2.A.39.1.1NCS1H+symportB
 Cytosine2.A.39.2.1NCS1H+symportY
 Nucleobases2.A.74.1.1METH+antiport?An
 Purines2.A.39.2.1NCS1H+symportY
 Purines2.A.40.2.1NCS2H+symportB
 Purines2.A.40.5.1NCS2H+symportF
 Uracil2.A.39.3.2NCS1H+symportY
 Uracil2.A.40.1.1NCS2H+symportB
 Uric acid2.A.40.4.1NCS2H+symportF
 Xanthine2.A.40.3.1NCS2H+symportB
 Xanthine2.A.40.4.1NCS2H+symportF
IV.B. Nucleosides
 Nucleosides2.A.1.10.1MFSH+ symportB
 Nucleosides2.A.21.3.3SSSNa+ symportAn
 Nucleosides2.A.41.1.1CNTH+ symportB
 Nucleosides2.A.41.2.2–5CNTNa+symportAn
 Nucleosides (pyrimidine specific)2.A.41.1.2CNTNa+ symportB
 Nucleosides (purine specific)2.A.41.2.1CNTNa+ symportAn
 Nucleosides2.A.57.1–3ENTUniportY, Pr, An
 Nucleosides2.A.74.1.1METH+antiport?An
 Nucleosides9.A.6.1.1INT?An
 Uridine2.A.39.3.2–3NCS1H+ symportY
 Xanthosine2.A.1.10.2MFSH+ symportB
IV.C. Nucleotides
 ADP2.A.12.1.1, -2AAASS antiportB
 ADP2.A.12.2.1AAASS antiportPl
 ADP2.A.29.1.1MCSS antiportMito
 ATP2.A.12.1.1AAASS antiportB
 ATP2.A.12.1.2AAASS antiportPl
 ATP2.A.29.1.1MCSS antiportMito
 Nucleoside triphosphates2.A.12.3.1AAAH+ symportB
V.A. Vitamins/cofactor precursors
l-Ascorbate2.A.40.6.1NCS2Na+symportAn
p-Aminobenzoylglutamate2.A.68.1.1AbgTH+symportB
 Anionic vitamins2.A.21.5.2SSSNa+ symportAn
 Biopterin2.A.71.1.1–4FBTH+symport?Pr
 Biotin2.A.21.5.2SSSNa+symportAn
 Cationic vitamins2.A.1.19.1MFSUniportAn
 Flavin adenine dinucleotide2.A.29.10.1MC?Mito
 Folate (reduced)2.A.48.1.1RFCH+ symportAn
 Folate2.A.71.1.1–4FBTH+ symport?Pr
 5-Formyltetrahydrofolate2.A.48.1.1RFCNa+symport?An
 Lipoate2.A.21.5.2SSSNa+symportAn
 Nicotinate2.A.65.1.1BRTH+symportAn
 Pantothenate2.A.21.1.1SSSNa+ symportB
 Pantothenate2.A.21.5.2SSSNa+symportAn
 Tetrahydrofolate2.A.48.1.1RFCNa+symport?An
 Thiamine2.A.39.4.1NCS1H+symportY
 Thiamine2.A.48.2.1RFCNa+symport?An
V.B. Enzyme and redox cofactors
 Acetyl coenzyme A2.A.1.25.1MFSSS antiportAn (ER)
S-Adenosylmethionine2.A.3.10.15APCH+symport?Y
 CMP-sialate2.A.50.7.1TP-NSTCMP antiportAn (ER)
 Coenzyme A2.A.1.25.1MFSSS antiportAn (ER)
 Flavin adenine dinucleotide2.A.29.10.1MC?Mito
 GDP-mannose2.A.50.8.1TP-NSTGMP antiportAn, Y (ER)
 Nicotinamide mononucleotide9.A.4.1.1PnuC?B
 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine2.A.50.5.1TP-NSTUMP antiportY, An (ER)
 UDP-galactose2.A.50.6.1TP-NSTUMP antiportAn (ER)
V.C. Siderophores and Fe-siderophore complexes
 Fe-enterobactin2.A.1.16.2MFSH+symport?Y
 Fe-ferrioxamine2.A.1.16.1MFSH+symport?Y
 Fe-siderophore2.A.1.16.1MFSH+symport?Y
 Fe-triacetylfusarinine2.A.1.16.3MFSH+symport?Y
V.D. Signaling molecules
 Acyll-homoserine lactone2.A.6.2.6RNDH+antiportB
 Isoflavenoids2.A.6.2.3RNDH+antiportB
 Nodulation factor2.A.6.3.1RNDH+ antiportB
 Prostaglandins2.A.60.1.2OATAn
 Steroid hormones2.A.1.19.4MFSAn
 Steroid hormones2.A.6.6RNDAn, Y
 Thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine)2.A.60.1.3, -7OATAn
VI.A. Multiple drugs and dyes
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.5MFSH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.6MFSH+antiportY
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.7MFSH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.8MFSH+antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.9MFSH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.10MFSH+antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.11–12MFSH+ antiportAn
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.2.16, -17MFSH+antiportAn
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.3.1MFSH+ antiportY
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.3.2MFSH+antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.3.3MFSH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.3.4MFSH+antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.3.5MFSH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs (cationic)2.A.1.19.1MFSUniportAn
 Multiple drugs (aminoglycosides)2.A.1.20.1MFSH+ antiport?B
 Multiple drugs2.A.1.21.1–4MFSH+antiportB
 Multiple drugs2.A.6.2.1–2, -6RNDH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs and dyes (cationic)2.A.7.1.1–2SMRH+ antiportB
 Multiple drugs (antibiotics) (uptake)2.A.17.4.1POTH+ symportAn
 Multiple drugs (antibiotics) (uptake)2.A.1.25.2MFSH+ symportB
 Multiple drugs (antibiotics)2.A.66.1–3MATEH+ antiportB, Y
 Multiple drugs (antibiotics)2.A.74.1.1–2METH+ antiport?An
 Xenobiotics2.A.1.19.1MFSUniportAn
VI.B. Specific drugs
 Acriflavin2.A.1.2.8MFSH+antiportB
 Acriflavin2.A.1.3.3MFSH+antiportB
 Actinorhordin2.A.1.3.7MFSH+antiportB
 Actinorhordin2.A.6.5.1RNDH+antiportB
 Amiloride2.A.1.2.1MFSH+antiportY
 Aminoglycosides2.A.1.20.1MFSH+antiport?B
 Aminotriazole2.A.1.3.1MFSH+ antiportY
 Ampicillin (in)2.A.1.25.2MFSH+symport?B
 Benomyl2.A.1.2.6MFSH+antiportY
 Bicyclomycin2.A.1.2.7MFSH+antiportB
 Bile acids2.A.1.3.13MFSH+antiportB
 Bleomycin2.A.1.21.2MFSH+antiportB
 Carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)2.A.1.2.9MFSH+ antiportB
 CCCP2.A.1.3.2MFSH+antiportB
 Cephamycin2.A.1.3.8MFSH+antiportB
 Chloramphenicol2.A.1.2.3MFSH+antiportB
 Chloramphenicol2.A.1.2.8MFSH+antiportB
 Cycloheximide2.A.1.2.2MFSH+antiportY
 Cycloheximide2.A.1.2.6MFSH+antiportY
 Daunomycin2.A.1.2.5MFSH+antiportB
 Dauxorubicin2.A.1.2.11MFSH+antiportAn
 Erythromycin2.A.1.21.1MFSH+ antiportB
 Ethidium bromide2.A.1.2.5MFSH+antiportB
 Ethidium bromide2.A.1.2.8MFSH+ antiportB
 Ethidium bromide2.A.1.2.11MFSH+antiportAn
 Ethidium bromide2.A.1.3.3MFSH+ antiportB
 Ethidium bromide2.A.66.1.1MATEH+antiportB
 Ethionine2.A.66.3.1MATEH+antiportY
 Fluconazole2.A.1.2.17MFSH+antiportY
 Fluoroquinolones2.A.1.2.8MFSH+antiportB
 Fluoroquinolones2.A.1.3.3MFSH+antiportB
 Hydrophobic uncouplers2.A.1.2.9MFSH+ antiportB
 Isoflavinoid2.A.6.2.3RNDH+ antiportB
 Kanamycin2.A.1.20.1MFSH+antiport?B
 Kanamycin2.A.66.1.1MATEH+antiportB
 β-Lactams (uptake)2.A.17.4.1POTH+symportAn
 Lincomycin2.A.1.3.9MFSH+antiportB
 Macrolides2.A.1.21.1MFSH+antiportB
 Methotrexate2.A.1.2.6MFSH+antiportY
 Methotrexate2.A.48.1.1RFCNa+symport?An
 Methotrexate2.A.60.1.4OAT?An
 Methylenomycin2.A.1.3.10MFSH+antiportB
 Methylviologen2.A.1.3.14MFSH+antiportB
 Nalidixic acid2.A.1.3.2MFSH+ antiportB
 Nitroquinoline-N-oxide2.A.1.3.1MFSH+antiportY
 Norfloxacin2.A.66.1.1MATEH+antiportB
 Oleandomycin2.A.1.21.1MFSH+antiportB
 Organocations2.A.1.3.4MFSH+antiportB
 Organomercurials2.A.1.3.2MFSH+antiportB
 Paraquat2.A.1.2.16MFSH+antiportY
 Penicillin and derivatives (in)2.A.1.25.2MFSH+ symportB
 Pristinamycin2.A.1.3.5MFSH+ antiportB
 Puromycin2.A.1.3.11MFSH+ antiportB
 Puromycin2.A.1.21.2MFSH+ antiportB
 Quinoline2.A.1.2.10MFSH+ antiportB
 Rifamycin2.A.1.3.5MFSH+ antiportB
 Rifamycin2.A.1.3.15MFSH+ antiportB
 Streptomycin2.A.1.20.1MFSH+antiport?B
 Streptomycin2.A.66.1.1MATEH+antiportB
 Sulfathiazole2.A.1.27MFSH+antiportB
 Tetracenomycin2.A.1.3.12MFSH+antiportB
 Tetracycline2.A.1.2.4MFSH+antiportB
 Tetracycline2.A.1.3.6MFSH+antiportB
 Tetracycline2.A.1.21.2–3MFSH+antiportB
VI.C. Bile salts and conjugates
 Bile salts2.A.1.19.4MFSUniport or H+ symportAn
 Bile salts2.A.6.2.5RNDH+ antiportB
 Bile salts2.A.28.1.1BASSNa+ symportAn
 Bile salt conjugates2.A.1.23.1MFSH+symportB
 Organic solvents2.A.6.2.4RNDH+ antiportB
 Toluene2.A.6.2.4RNDH+ antiportB
VI.D. Sterols/steroids
 Steroids2.A.6.2.5RNDH+ antiportB
 Sterols (nonspecific)2.A.1.19.4MFSUniport; H+ symportAn
 Sterols (nonspecific; probable)2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Sterols (nonspecific)2.A.74.1.1METH+antiport?An
 Aldosterone2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Cardiac glycosides2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Cortisol2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+antiport?Y, An
 Dexamethasone2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Estrone-3-sulfate2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+antiport?Y, An
 Estradiol 17-glucuronide2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Ouabain2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+ antiport?Y, An
 Steroid conjugates2.A.6.6.1, -3RNDH+antiport?Y, An
 Steroid hormones (conjugated and unconjugated)2.A.60.1OAT?An
VII.A. Carbohydrates
 Lipooligosaccharides2.A.6.3.1RNDH+antiport?B
 Exo- and capsular polysaccharides (out)9.A.1.2.1–2PSTH+ antiport?B
 Lipopolysaccharide (out)9.A.1.1PSTH+antiport?B
VII.B. Proteins
 Proteins (nonspecific)2.A.6.4.1RND (SecDF)H+antiport?B, A
 Redox enzymes/proteins2.A.64.1.1TATPMF drivenB, A, E
VII.D. Lipids
 Lipids2.A.6.5.2RNDPMF drivenB
 Lipids2.A.31.1.1AE?An
  • a Abbreviations are defined in Table 3, footnote d, and in Table 2. ER, endoplasmic reticulum; SS antiport, solute/solute antiport.