Table 1.

Overview of literature reports dealing with probiotics as biological control agents in aquaculture

Putative probioticOriginaObservationsMethod of administrationaSuggested mode of actionaReference(s)
Fish eggs and Larvae
 Several strains (unidentified)Eggs of cod and halibutFailure of the strains to prevent the adherence of environmental bacteria to cod eggsBathing in bacterial suspensionAntagonism51
Vibrio salmonicida-like and Lactobacillus plantarumFishIncrease of survival of halibut larvae 2 weeks after hatchingAddition to culture waterImmunostimulation84
Bacillus strain IP5832 spores (Paciflor 9)?Increase of weight of turbot larvae when fed spore-fed rotifers; decrease of mortality when challenged with an opportunisticVibrionaceae memberAddition to rotifer dietAntagonism and/or improved nutritional value of the rotifers35
Streptococcus lactis andLactobacillus bulgaricus?Increase of survival of turbot larvae 17 days after hatchingEnrichment of rotifers andArtemia?32
Lactobacillus or CarnobacteriumRotifers (Brachionus plicatilis)Decrease of mortality of turbot larvae challenged with a pathogenic Vibriosp.Enrichment of rotifersAntagonism and/or improved nutritional value of the rotifers37
Vibrio pelagiusCopepod-fed turbot larvaeDecrease (?) of mortality of turbot larvae challenged with A. caviaeAddition to culture water?104
 Strain E (Vibrio alginolyticus-alike)Healthy turbot larvaeDecrease of mortality of turbot larvae challenged with a pathogenic Vibrio strain P; also, the growth rate of the larvae may be increasedEnrichment of rotifersCompetition for iron38
 Microbially matured waterIncrease of initial growth rate of turbot and halibut larvaeAs culture water?115, 135
Fish juveniles and Adults
 Lyophilized Carnobacterium divergensAtlantic salmon intestinesIncrease (!) of mortality of Atlantic salmon fry challenged with cohabitants infected with A. salmonicidaAddition to diet43
 LyophilizedCarnobacterium divergensAtlantic salmon intestinesDecrease of mortality of Atlantic cod fry when challenged with a pathogenic V. anguillarum strainAddition to diet?45
 LyophilizedCarnobacterium divergensAtlantic salmon intestinesDecrease of mortality of Atlantic cod fry challenged with a pathogenic V. anguillarum strain 12 days after the infection; 4wk after the infection, however, the same mortality as in the control was reachedAdditon to dietAntagonism44
Carnobacterium strain K1Atlantic salmon intestinesGrowth inhibition of V. anguillarum andA. salmonicida in fish intestinal mucus and fecal extracts (no in vivo test)Antagonism59
CarnobacteriumAtlantic salmon intestinesGrowth inhibition of V. anguillarum in turbot fecal extracts (no in vivo test)Antagonism85
 Fluorescent pseudomonad F19/3Fish mucusDecrease of mortality of Atlantic salmon presmolts challenged with stress-inducibleA. salmonicida infectionBathing in bacterial suspensionCompetition for iron117
Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2Iced Lake Victorian Nile perchDecrease of mortality of rainbow trout juveniles challenged with a pathogenicV. anguillarumAddition to culture water and/or bathing in bacterial suspensionCompetition for iron48
Vibrio alginolyticusCommercial shrimp hatchery in EcuadorDecrease of mortality of Atlantic salmon juveniles challenged with a pathogenic A. salmonicida, V. anguillarum, and V. ordaliiBathing in bacterial suspensionAntagonism5
Bacillus megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. licheniformis, 2 strains of B. subtilis (Biostart)?Increase of survival and net production of channel catfishAddition to pond water?95
 Spray-driedTetraselmis suecica (unicellular alga)?Decrease of mortality of Atlantic salmon juveniles challenged with several pathogens; alga was effective prophylactically as well as therapeuticallyAddition to dietAntagonism2
Bacillus strain S11Penaeus monodon or mud and water from shrimp pondsIncrease of mean weight and survival of P. monodon larvae and postlarvae; decrease of mortality after challenge with the pathogen V. harveyi D331Addition to dietAntagonism99; Rengpipat and Rukpratanporn, abstract
Vibrio alginolyticusPacific Ocean seawaterIncrease of survival and weight of L. vannamei postlarvae; decreased observation of V. parahaemolyticus in the shrimpsAddition to culture waterAntagonism33
Bacillus?Increase of survival of penacid shrimps; decrease of luminous VibriodensitiesAddition to pond waterAntagonism73, 74
 Strain PM-4 and/or NS-110SoilIncrease of survival ofP. monodon and P. trituberculatus larvae; decrease of Vibrio densitiesAddition to culture waterAntagonism/food source for larvae67–69, 83
 Strain BY-9Coastal seawaterIncrease of survival of P. monodon larvae; decrease of VibriodensitiesAddition to culture water?Sugama and Tsumura, abstract
Bivalve mollusks
Vibrio strain 11Microalgae in a scallop hatcheryDecrease of mortality of scallop larvae challenged with a pathogenic V. anguillarum-like strainBathing in bacterial suspensionAntagonism105
Aeromonas media A 199?Decrease of mortality and suppression of the pathogen of Pacific oyster larvae when challenged with a pathogenic V. tubiashiiAddition to culture waterAntagonism42
Live food—Algae
 Several strainsTurbot larvaeGrowth stimulation of P. lutheriAddition to culture water?75
Flavobacteriumsp.Chaetoceros gracilis mass cultureImproved growth characteristics of C. gracilis, I. galbana, and P. lutheriAddition to culture water?128
 Strain SK-05Skeletonema costatum cultureInhibition of the growth of V. alginolyticus in Skeletonema costatum cultureAddition to culture waterCompetition for resources101
Live food—Rotifers
Lactobacillus plantarum?Inhibition of the growth of a fortuitous A. salmonicida strain in rotifer cultureAddition to dietAntagonism36
Lactococcus lactis AR21Rotifer cultureCounteraction of rotifer growth inhibition when challenged with V. anguillarumAddition to culture water?54
 Several strainsRotifer cultureIncrease of the specific growth rate of rotifer cultureAddition to culture water108
Live food—Artemia
Vibrio alginolyticusC14?Decrease of mortality ofArtemia nauplii when challenged with V. parahaemolyticusAddition to culture water?47
 Several strainsArtemia cultureDecrease of mortality of Artemia juveniles when challenged withV. proteolyticus141
  • a —, not relevant; ?, not specified.