Table 12.

Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes with potential industrial applications

EnzymeOriginPotential application(s)PropertiesReference(s)
Endo-1,4-β-glucanase T. maritima Cellulose degradation Optimal activity at 95°C, pH 6.0–7.5; t 1/2, 2 h (95°C) 42, 218
T. neapolitana Cellulose degradationOptimal activity at 95°C, pH 6.0; sp act, 1,219 U/mga on CMCb 32
T. neapolitana Cellulose degradationOptimal activity at 106°C, pH 6.0–6.6; sp act: 1,536 U/mg on CMC;t 1/2, 130 min(106°C); transglycosylation activity 32
Cellobiohydrolase T. maritima Cellulose degradationOptimal activity at 95°C, pH 6.0–7.5; t 1/2, 30 min (95°C) 42
Cellobiohydrolase Thermotoga sp. strain FjSS3-B.1Cellulose degradationOptimal activity at 105°C. pH 7.0; t 1/2, 70 min (108°C) 286
Endoxylanase Thermotoga sp. strain FjSS3-B.1Paper pulp bleachingOptimal activity at pH 6.5;t 1/2, 22 h (90°C) and 12 h (95°C) 294
T. thermarum (enzyme II)Paper pulp bleachingOptimal activity at 90–100°C, pH 7.0; sp act, 19.5 U/mg; inactive on CMC 324
Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum Paper pulp bleachingOptimal activity at 70°C, pH 5.5–6.0; t 1/2, 35 min (80°C) 208 207
Bacillus sp. strain 3DPaper pulp bleachingOptimal activity at 75°C, pH 6.0 (3,300 U/mg); stable at 80°C for 24 h (pH 9.0) and 10 h (pH 12.5) 126
β-Xylosidase/ arabinofuranosidase Thermotogasp. strain FjSS3-B.1Paper pulp bleachingOptimal activity at pH 7.0; t 1/2, 4 h (98°C) (+ 40 mg of bovine serum albumin per ml) 285, 287
β-Mannanase Rhodothermus marinus Softwood pulp bleaching; coffee bean treatment and coffee extractionOptimal activity at 85°C, pH 5.0–6.5;t 1/2, 45.3 h (85°C) and 4.2 h (90°C) 118
β-Xylosidase Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum Carbohydrate synthesis; xylose productionOptimal activity at 70°C, pH 5.5;t 1/2, 55 min (75°C); β-1,4, β-1,3, and β-1,1 transglycosylation activities 11, 209
β-Glucosidase P. furiosus Regio- and stereoselective glucoconjugate synthesis by transglycosylationOptimal activity at 102–105°C, pH 5.0;Km of 20 mM and V max of 470 U/mg (95°C) on cellobiose; t 1/2, 85 h (100°C) and 13 h (110°C) 176
Trehalose synthase Thermus caldophilus α, α-Trehalose production; used in food, cosmetics, medicine, and organ preservationProducs 86% α, α-trehalose from 95% maltose at 40°C 189
Hydantoinase Bacillus stearothermophilus Synthesis of d-amino acids as intermediates in the production of semi-synthetic antibiotics, peptide hormones, pyrethroids, and pesticidesOptimal activity at 65°C, pH 8.0 (+ Mn2+); t 1/2, 30 min (80°C) 206
Esterase P. furiosus Transesterification and ester synthesisOptimal activity at 100°C, pH 7.6; t 1/2, 34 h (100°C) and 2 h (120°C) 157
Aldolase S. solfataricus Synthetic chemistry: C—C bond synthesisSpecific for nonphosphorylated substrates; Optimal activity at 90°C; t 1/2, 7.8 h (90°C) and 2.5 h (100°C) 45
Cytochrome P450 S. solfataricus Selective regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations in chemical synthesis Tm , 91°C; substrate unknown 242
Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus Chemical synthesis: production of enantiomerically pure chiral alcoholsOptimal activity at >90°C; t 1/2, 1.7 h (90°C) 46, 47, 339
Pectin methylesterase T. thermosulfurigenes Fruit juice clarification, wine makingOptimal activity at 70°C, pH 6.5;t 1/2, 30 min (70°C)296
Polygalacturonate hydrolase T. thermosulfurigenes Fruit juice clarification, wine makingOptimal activity at 75°C, pH 5.5;t 1/2, 30 min (70°C) 296
Pectate lyase Thermoanaerobacter italicus Fruit juice clarification, wine making, fruit and vegetable macerationOptimal activity at 80°C; stable at 70°C for 2 h 194
β-Galactosidase T. maritima Production of lactose-free dietary milk productsOptimal activity at 80°C, pH 5.3 111
β-Fructosidase T. maritima Confectionery industry; production of invert sugar; hydrolysis of inulin to produce HFCSOptimal activity at 90–95°C, pH 5.5; no metal requirement; hydrolyzes sucrose (no product inhibition) and inulin 217
β-1,4-Endoglucanase P. furiosus Animal feed: digestion of barley β-glucanHydrolyzes β-1,4 linkages in (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucans and cellulose; optimal activity at 100°C, pH 6.0; t1/2, 40 h (90°C) and 1.6 h (105°C) 20
Phytase Bacillus sp. strain DS11Phytate degradation in animal feedOptimal activity at 70°C, pH 5.0–5.5; t 1/2, 10 min (90°C) (+ 5 mM CaCl2) 178
Keratinase Fervidobacterium pennavorans Degradation of poultry feathers and production of rare amino acids (i.e., serine and proline)Optimal activity at 80°C, pH 10.0 105
Chitinase Streptomyces thermoviolaceus Chitin utilization as a renewable resource; production of biologically active oligosaccharidesOptimal activity at 80°C, pH 9.0; transglycosylation activity 340
α-Galactosidase T. maritima Oil and gas industry: well stimulation by galactomannan hydrolysis; sugar beet processing: removal of raffinose from sucrose syrups; oligosaccharide synthesis through glycosyl transfer reactionsOptimal activity at 90–95°C, pH 5.0–5.5; t1/2, 48 h (80°C) and 70 min (90°C); hydrolyzes raffinose and melibiose 219
Alkaline phosphatase T. neapolitana Diagnostics: enzyme-labeling applications where high stability is requiredOptimal activity at 85°C, pH 9.9; t1/2, 4 h (90°C) (+ Co2+); Sp act, 1,352 U/mg (85°C) with pNPPb as substrate 87
  • a 1 U corresponds to an OD430change of 0.1/min.

  • b CMC, carboxymethyl cellulose.

  • c pNPP, p-nitrophenyl phosphate.