Table 9.

Examples of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes with applications as molecular biology reagents

EnzymeOriginApplicationsPropertiesSource or reference(s)
Taqpolymerase T. aquaticus PCR technologiesOptimal activity at 75°C, pH 9.0 26, 199
Vent DNA polymerase T. litoralis Optimal activity at 75°C, proofreading activity 2, 271
Deep Vent DNA polymerase P. furiosus Optimal activity at 75°C, proofreading activity; t 1/2, 23 h (95°C) 2,343
C. therm DNA polymerase Carboxydothermus  hydrogenoformans Reverse transcription-PCRReverse transcriptase activity, 3′→5′ proofreading activity; optimal activity as 60–70°CRoche Molecular Biochemicals
DNA polymerase Thermus  thermophilus Reverse transcriptase activityRoche Molecular Biochemicals
Pfu DNA ligase P. furiosus Ligase chain reaction and DNA ligationsActive at 45–80°C;t 1/2 >60 min (95°C)Stratagene
Tcs DNA ligase Thermus  scodoductus Ligase chain reactionOptimal activity at 45°CRoche Molecular Biochemicals
DNA binding protein Ssod7 S. solfataricus Time-reducing and specificity-enhancing in DNA-DNA hybridizations; locking of antisense oligonucleotide to target sequenceSequence-aspecific DNA binding; ATP-independent, homology-dependent DNA annealing at 60°C 123
Serine protease (PreTaq) Thermus strain  Rt41ADNA and RNA purifications; cellular structures degradation prior to PCROptimal activity at 90°C, pH 8.0;t 1/2, 20 min (90°C) (+CaCl2)Life Technologies
Protease S P. furiosus Protein fragmentation for sequencingOptimal activity at 85–95°C, pH 6.0–8.0; 80% active after 3 h (95°C)TaKaRa Biomedicals
Methionine aminopeptidase P. furiosus Cleavage of the N-terminal Met in proteinsOptimal activity at 85–95°C, pH 7.0–8.0; stable for 1 h (75°C)TaKaRa Biomedicals
Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase P. furiosus Cleavage of the N-terminall-pyroglutamate in proteinsOptimal activity at 95–100°C, pH 6.0–9.0; 95% active after 2.5 h (75°C)TaKaRa Biomedicals
Carboxypeptidase S. solfataricus C-terminal sequencingBroad specificity (can release basic, acidic, and aromatic residues); stable in solvents at 40°C 66
Alkaline phosphatase T. neapolitana Enzyme-labeling applications where high stability is requiredOptimal activity at 85°C, pH 9.9;t 1/2, 4 h (90°C) (+ Co2+)87