TABLE 5.

T4 and E. coli codon usage and tRNA availability

Amino acidCodon usageatRNA availability, gene copy no. [relative content]b
CodonCumulative frequency (per 103)Anticodon
E. coliT4E. coliT4
ArgCGU20.919.1ACG4 [0.9]
CGC22.05.7
CGA3.65.6
CGG5.41.1CCG1 [minor]
AGA2.19.9UCU1 [minor]1
AGG1.21.8CCU1 [minor]
LeuUUA13.927.8UAA1 [0.25]1
UUG13.710.7CAA1 [0.2]
CUU11.018.3
CUC11.14.1GAG1 [0.3]
CUA3.97.0UAG1 [minor]
CUG52.65.6CAG4 [1.0]
SerUCU8.524.7
UCC8.63.6GGA2 [0.25]
UCA7.218.4UGA1 [0.25]1
UCG8.93.8CGA1 [0.05]
AGU8.810.5
AGC16.15.6GCU1 [0.25]
AlaGCU15.331.1
GCC25.55.2GGC2 [0.3]
GCA20.119.6UGC3 [1.0]
GCG33.66.5
GlyGGU24.727.7
GGC29.68.1GCC4 [1.1]
GGA8.019.5UCC1 [0.15]1
GGG11.13.9CCC1 [0.1]
ProCCU7.014.3
CCC5.51.1GGG1 [minor]
CCA8.413.9UGG1 [0.3]1
CCG23.24.8CGG1 [0.3]
ThrACU9.027.9
ACC23.46.3GGU2 [0.8]
ACA7.116.8UGU1 [0.1]1
ACG14.45.4CGU2 [0.1]
ValGUU18.331.6
GUC15.35.4GAC2 [0.4]
GUA10.920.1UAC5 [1.05]
GUG26.46.2
IleAUU30.351.3
AUC25.111.2GAU3 [1.0]
AUA4.412.0CAU2 [0.05]1
AsnAAU17.742.3
AAC21.714.8GUU4 [0.6]
AspGAU32.147.4
GAC19.114.8GUC3 [0.8]
CysUGU5.27.3
UGC6.53.8GCA1 [minor]
GlnCAA15.321.9UUG2 [0.3]1
CAG28.811.1CUG2 [0.4]
GluGAA39.460.0UUC4 [0.9]
GAG17.810.8
HisCAU12.913.7
CAC9.74.0GUG1 [0.4]
LysAAA33.663.5UUU6 [1.0]
AAG10.317.3
PheUUU22.333.4
UUC16.611.1GAA2 [0.35]
TyrUAU16.233.7
UAC12.29.7GUA3 [0.5]
MetAUG27.926.8CAU6 [0.8]
TrpUGG15.214.3CCA1 [0.3]
  • a The total number of codons is 1,363,498 for E. coli (4,290 protein-coding genes) and 54,574 for T4 (274 genes). Optimal codons of E. coli are underlined.

  • b The cellular tRNA contents relative to Leu-tRNA with anticodon CAG are shown in brackets. Low-abundance tRNAs that are difficult to quantify by the two-dimensional gel analysis are shown as [minor].