TABLE 1.

Principal virulence attributes of C. albicans

Virulence attributePutative virulence rolesReferences
Adhesins (e.g., Als family, Hwp1, Int1)aAdhesion and colonization22, 23, 33, 93, 230, 231
Hypha productionAdhesion, invasion, tissue damage18-20, 62, 63, 79, 127
Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., Sap, Plb, and Lip families)bNutrient acquisition, invasion, tissue damage, evasion of host response94, 95, 97, 98
Phenotypic switchingAdhesion, evasion of host response214-216, 218
  • a Als, agglutinin-like sequence; Hwp1, hyphal cell wall protein 1; Int1, integrin-like protein.

  • b Sap, secreted aspartyl proteinases 1 to 10; Plb, phospholipase B1 and B2; Lip, Lipases 1 to 10.