TABLE 1.

Principal virulence attributes of C. albicans

Virulence attributePutative virulence rolesReferences
Adhesins (e.g., Als family, Hwp1, Int1)aAdhesion and colonization 22, 23, 33, 93, 230, 231
Hypha productionAdhesion, invasion, tissue damage 18-20, 62, 63, 79, 127
Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., Sap, Plb, and Lip families)bNutrient acquisition, invasion, tissue damage, evasion of host response 94, 95, 97, 98
Phenotypic switchingAdhesion, evasion of host response 214-216, 218
  • a Als, agglutinin-like sequence; Hwp1, hyphal cell wall protein 1; Int1, integrin-like protein.

  • b Sap, secreted aspartyl proteinases 1 to 10; Plb, phospholipase B1 and B2; Lip, Lipases 1 to 10.