TABLE 8.

Use of SAP-disrupted mutants in mucosal and systemic C. albicans infectionsa

StudyMain findings
Mucosal infections
    244sap1, sap2, and sap3 null mutants were less strongly adherent to buccal epithelial cells than was the parental strain in vitro. The sap4 to sap6 triple mutant had significantly increased adherence.
    200sap1, sap2, and sap3 mutants caused less tissue damage than did the parental strain in an in vitro RHE model of oral candidiasis. A sap1-sap3 double mutant caused fewer lesions than did the two single sap1 or sap3 mutants. The sap4 to sap6 triple mutant showed tissue damage equal to that for the parent strain.
    44sap1, sap2, and sap3 mutants, but not the sap4 to sap6 triple mutant, were less virulent in a rat vaginitis model than was the parent strain. The sap2 mutant was almost avirulent.
    119No demonstrable differences between SAP1 to SAP6 knockout strains and control strains in gastrointestinal infections of mice.
Systemic infections
    103No difference in adherence to endothelial cells in vitro between the sap1, sap2, and sap3 null mutants and the parental strain. The sap2 mutant caused less damage to endothelial cells.
    120The sap4 to sap6 triple mutant, but not the sap1, sap2, or sap3 mutants, caused less tissue damage and invasion in murine peritoneal infections than did the parental strain.
    65Analysis of single sap4, sap5, and sap6 and double sap4-sap6, sap5-sap6, and sap4-sap5 mutants in a murine intraperitoneal model indicated that only those lacking SAP6 showed significantly reduced tissue damage.
    100, 194sap1, sap2, sap3, and sap4 to sap6 mutants were less lethal in two different animal models of disseminated infections than was the parental strain. The sap4 to sap6 triple mutant displayed the greatest attenuation.
Evasion of host immune responses
    16The sap4 to sap6 triple mutant was eliminated 53% more effectively after phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro than was the parent strain.
  • a Reprinted from reference 97 with permission.