TABLE 5.

SAP gene expression in humans and in artificial and animal models

ModelInfectionSAP genesAssayMain findingsReference
HumanOralSAP1 to SAP7RT-PCRSAP2 and SAP4 to SAP6 were the predominant proteinase genes expressed in the oral cavity of both patients with oral candidiasis and Candida carriers. SAP1 and SAP3 transcripts were observed only in patients. SAP7 mRNA expression (never previously demonstrated) was detected in carriers and patients.156
HumanOral and vaginalSAP1 to SAP8RT-PCRCertain SAP genes are preferentially expressed in the oral cavity and vaginal lumen. Individual SAP genes are more frequently expressed during active C. albicans infection than during carriage.157
RHEOralSAP1 to SAP6, SAP8RT-PCRProgression of SAP expression occurred in the order SAP1 and SAP3 > SAP6 > SAP2 and SAP8. SAP6 expression was concomitant with germ tube formation and severe lesions. SAP4 and SAP5 transcripts were not detected.202
RHEVaginalSAP1 to SAP10RT-PCRProgressive SAP expression occurred in the order SAP2, SAP9, and SAP10, followed by SAP2, SAP4, and SAP5, and finally SAP6 and SAP7.198
RHECutaneousSAP1 to SAP6, SAP8RT-PCRProgressive SAP expression occurred in the order SAP1 and SAP2 > SAP8 > SAP6 > SAP3 during the course of infection. Concomitant expression of SAP6 was found with germ tube formation and hyphal growth.201
MouseOropharyngeal (wild-type and transgenic mice expressing HIV-1)SAP1 to SAP9RT-PCRSAP7 and SAP8 were transiently expressed in both wild-type and transgenic mice. Sustained expression of other SAP gene occurred during the course of infection. SAP5 and SAP9 were strongly expressed throughout infection in transgenic mice.178
MouseOropharyngeal, intravenous, and intraperitonealSAP1 to SAP6RIVETIn esophageal candidiasis, SAP5 and SAP6 were strongly activated. In an intravenous model, SAP4 to SAP6 were the main SAP genes activated. In intraperitoneal infections, SAP5 was the main gene activated both in the initial stages and during invasion and dissemination. SAP1 to SAP3 were observed later in the disseminated models. SAP5 appeared to be the main gene activated mucosally and systemically.223
MouseGastrointestinalSAP1 to SAP6RT-PCRSAP4 and SAP6 were always detected, whereas SAP2, SAP3, and SAP5 were detected occasionally. SAP1 was not detected.119
MouseGastrointestinalSAP1 to SAP6RIVETThere was a high percentage of SAP4 to SAP6 activation, which increased steadily during the course of infection. SAP1 to SAP3 activation was detected occasionally and at lower percentages than SAP4 to SAP6 activation.119
MouseIntraperitonealSAP1 to SAP10RT-PCRWithin the first 72 h, SAP1, SAP2, SAP4, SAP5, SAP6, and SAP9 were most commonly expressed. SAP2, and SAP4 to SAP6 were detected in all samples. SAP3 was rarely detected, and SAP7 was never detected.65
RatVaginalSAP1 and SAP2Northern blottingSAP1 and SAP2 were expressed by two vaginopathic C. albicans strains and not by a nonvaginopathogenic strain, but only in the first week of infection.47