TABLE 1.

Common themes among phage-encoded virulence factorsa

ProteinGenePhageBacterial host
Extracellular toxins
    Diphtheria toxin tox β-Phage C. diphtheriae
    NeurotoxinC1Phage C1 C. botulinum
    Shiga toxins stx1, stx2 H-19B E. coli
    Enterohaemolysin hly2 φFC3208 E. coli
    Cytotoxin ctx φCTX P. aeruginosa
    Enterotoxin see, sel NA S. aureus
    Enterotoxin P sep φN315 S. aureus
    Enterotoxin A entA φ13 S. aureus
    Enterotoxin A sea φMu50A S. aureus
    Exfoliative toxin A eta φETA S. aureus
    Toxin type A speA T12 S. pyogenes
    Toxin type C speC CS112 S. pyogenes
    Cholera toxin ctxAB CTXφ V. cholerae
    Leukocidin pvl fPVL S. aureus
    Superantigens speA1, speA3, speC, speI, speH, speM, speL, speK, ssa8232.1 S. pyogenes
    Cytolethal distending toxin cdt Unnamed E. coli
Proteins altering antigenicity
    Membrane proteinsMu-likePnm1 N. meningitidis
    Glucosylation rfb ε34 S. enterica
    Glucosylation gtr P22 S. enterica
    O-antigen acetylase oac Sf6 S. flexneri
    Glucosyl transferase gtrII SfII, SfV, SfX S. flexneri
Effector proteins involved in invasion
    Type III effector sopE SopEΦ S. enterica
    Type III effector sseI (gtgB) GIFSY-2 S. enterica
    Type III effector sspH1 GIFSY-3 S. enterica
Enzymes
    Superoxide dismutase sodC Sp4, 10 E. coli O157
    Superoxide dismutase sodC-I GIFSY-2 S. enterica
    Superoxide dismutase sodC-III Fels-1 S. enterica
    Neuraminidase nanH Fels-1 S. enterica
    Hyaluronidase hylP H4489A S. pyogenes
    Leukocidin pvl φPVL S. aureus
    Staphylokinase sak φ13 S. aureus
    Phospholipase sla 315.4 S. pyogenes
    DNase/streptodornase sdn, sda 315.6, 8232.5 S. pyogenes
Serum resistance
    OMPb bor λ E. coli
    OMP eib λ-like E. coli
Adhesions for bacterial host attachment
    Vir vir MAV1 M. arthritidis
    Phage coat proteins pblA, pblBSM1 S. mitis
Others
    Mitogenic factors mf2, mf3, mf4 370.1, 370.3, 315.3 S. pyogenes
    Mitogenic factor toxA Unnamed P. multocida
    Mitogenic factorUnnamedphisc 1 S. canis
    Virulence gtgE GIFSY-2 S. enterica
    Antivirulence grvA GIFSY-2, Fels-1 S. enterica
  • a Updated from reference 26 with permission.

  • b OMP, outer membrane protein.