TABLE 1.

Common themes among phage-encoded virulence factorsa

ProteinGenePhageBacterial host
Extracellular toxins
    Diphtheria toxintoxβ-PhageC. diphtheriae
    NeurotoxinC1Phage C1C. botulinum
    Shiga toxinsstx1, stx2H-19BE. coli
    Enterohaemolysinhly2φFC3208E. coli
    CytotoxinctxφCTXP. aeruginosa
    Enterotoxinsee, selNAS. aureus
    Enterotoxin PsepφN315S. aureus
    Enterotoxin AentAφ13S. aureus
    Enterotoxin AseaφMu50AS. aureus
    Exfoliative toxin AetaφETAS. aureus
    Toxin type AspeAT12S. pyogenes
    Toxin type CspeCCS112S. pyogenes
    Cholera toxinctxABCTXφV. cholerae
    LeukocidinpvlfPVLS. aureus
    SuperantigensspeA1, speA3, speC, speI, speH, speM, speL, speK, ssa8232.1S. pyogenes
    Cytolethal distending toxincdtUnnamedE. coli
Proteins altering antigenicity
    Membrane proteinsMu-likePnm1N. meningitidis
    Glucosylationrfbε34S. enterica
    GlucosylationgtrP22S. enterica
    O-antigen acetylaseoacSf6S. flexneri
    Glucosyl transferasegtrIISfII, SfV, SfXS. flexneri
Effector proteins involved in invasion
    Type III effectorsopESopEΦS. enterica
    Type III effectorsseI (gtgB)GIFSY-2S. enterica
    Type III effectorsspH1GIFSY-3S. enterica
Enzymes
    Superoxide dismutasesodCSp4, 10E. coli O157
    Superoxide dismutasesodC-IGIFSY-2S. enterica
    Superoxide dismutasesodC-IIIFels-1S. enterica
    NeuraminidasenanHFels-1S. enterica
    HyaluronidasehylPH4489AS. pyogenes
    LeukocidinpvlφPVLS. aureus
    Staphylokinasesakφ13S. aureus
    Phospholipasesla315.4S. pyogenes
    DNase/streptodornasesdn, sda315.6, 8232.5S. pyogenes
Serum resistance
    OMPbborλE. coli
    OMPeibλ-likeE. coli
Adhesions for bacterial host attachment
    VirvirMAV1M. arthritidis
    Phage coat proteinspblA, pblBSM1S. mitis
Others
    Mitogenic factorsmf2, mf3, mf4370.1, 370.3, 315.3S. pyogenes
    Mitogenic factortoxAUnnamedP. multocida
    Mitogenic factorUnnamedphisc 1S. canis
    VirulencegtgEGIFSY-2S. enterica
    AntivirulencegrvAGIFSY-2, Fels-1S. enterica
  • a Updated from reference 26 with permission.

  • b OMP, outer membrane protein.