TABLE 1.

Selected applications of single-cell microbiological methods

ApplicationMethods usedReferences
Effects of antimicrobials and other stressors on individual cellsElectrorotation, flow cytometry, fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy, fluorescence video microscopy, GFP, immunofluorescence17, 19, 24, 42, 70, 94, 106, 108, 194, 215, 228, 229, 242, 247
Metabolic or enzymatic properties of single cellsAFM, confocal LSC, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent and nonfluorescent enzyme substrates, image analysis, microcapillary electrophoresis25, 27, 39, 54, 68, 139, 167, 179, 230, 246, 249
Growth and activity of single fungal hyphaeFluorescence microscopy, image analysis, video-enhanced light microscopy23, 26, 57, 79, 87, 90
Microspectroscopic analysis of individual cells or hyphaeImage analysis, fluorescence microspectroscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, microbeam analysis, NMR microscopy, scanning confocal laser microscopy10, 13, 44, 88, 95, 128, 135, 178, 204, 205, 252, 262
Photosynthetic properties of individual cells or protoplastsHigh-repetition-rate fluorometry, fluorescence microscopy, microamperometric measurements89, 181, 219, 258
Nutritional state or elemental content of individual cellsGFP, immunofluorescence, microbeam analysis, Raman microscopy70, 88, 95, 120, 178, 242
Measurement of intracellular pHFluorescence ratio imaging microscopy, GFP17, 38, 42, 94, 113, 172, 214, 215
Host-pathogen interactionsGFP, image analysis, immunofluorescence, laser-tracking microrheology, optical tweezers12, 26, 122, 136, 144, 159, 227, 265
Predator-prey interactionsFlow cytometry, FISH, GFP, immunofluorescence20, 37, 72, 96, 101, 141
Separation, sorting, or manipulation of individual cellsCapillary electrophoresis, electrorotation, dielectrophoresis, flow cytometry, optical trapping, optical tweezers4, 9, 15, 43, 77, 81, 83, 159, 165, 170, 211
Strain or process improvementFlow cytometry, fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy, image analysis9, 44, 57, 124, 215
Power and torque in individual cells or cellular motorsElectrorotation, force-calibrated glass microprobes, “optical funnel,” optical trapping32, 53, 121, 162, 200
Nanomechanical properties of individual cellsAFM, glass or optical fiber microprobes18, 154, 213, 218, 232, 233, 257
Discrete cell surface properties, cell-cell interactions, cell-substrate interactionsAFM, biological force microscopy, microsphere adhesion assay, optical tweezers, SECM26, 45, 85, 149, 150, 216, 220, 259, 266
Analysis of gene expression or transfer, detection of genetic damage, other molecular analyses of single cellsFlow cytometry, FISH, GFP, in situ PCR or reverse transcription-PCR, scanning confocal laser microscopy, single-cell DNA preparation, single-cell rDNA sequencing19, 51, 52, 60, 90, 144, 153, 161, 163, 186, 196, 197, 221, 234, 235