TABLE 3.

Amino acid and cofactor biosynthetic capability of the endosymbiotic bacteriaa

Amino acid or cofactorPresent inb:
BAPBSGBBPWGLBFL
Essential amino acids
    Arginine+c+c+c
    Valine++++
    Leucine++++
    Isoleucine+d+d+d+
    Lysine+++e+
    Threonine+++f+
    Methionine+
    Histidine++++
    Phenylalanine++++
    Tryptophan++++
Nonessential amino acids
    Tyrosine+
    Cysteine+++
    Glycine+++++
    Serine
    Proline
    Glutamine++
    Glutamate++
    Aspartate++
    Asparagine
    Alanine
Cofactors
    Biotin++
    Lipoic acid++++
    FAD++g++
    Folatehhh++
    Pantothenate+i
    Thiamine+
    Pyridoxine+j+j,k
    Pyridoxine phosphate+k+k
    Protoheme+
    Ubiquinone++
    NAD+l+l+m
  • a Adapted from reference 35 with permission of the publisher.

  • b BAP, Buchnera aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum; BSG, Buchnera aphidicola from Schizaphis graminum; BBP, Buchnera aphidicola from Baizongia pistacea; Wgl, Wigglesworthia glossinidia; BFL, “Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus.”

  • c Synthesized from ornithine.

  • d Synthesized from α-ketobutyrate and pyruvate.

  • e The pathway ends with the synthesis of diaminopimelate.

  • f The pathway ends with the synthesis of homoserine.

  • g The pathway ends with the synthesis of riboflavin.

  • h Synthesized from 7,8-dihydropteroate.

  • i Synthesized from 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate.

  • j Synthesized from pyridoxamine.

  • k Synthesized from d-erythrose-4-phosphate.

  • l Synthesized from nicotinate.

  • m Synthesized from quinolinate.