TABLE 1.

Cytoplasmic/mitochondrial substrates for endogenous covalent mono-ADP-ribosylation

Substrate(s)Amino acid modification site(s)Functional relevanceReference(s)
Glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2)C119Inhibits substrate activity78
Desmin (intermediate filament protein)R48 and R68Inhibition of assembly of desmin into 10-nm intermediate filaments464
TubulinArginine residuesAssembly inhibition and rapid depolymerization351, 403
Alpha-actinR95 and R372Delay in polymerization, decreased rate of nucleation183
Beta-actinArginine residuesInhibition of actin polymerization401
G-actinR28 and R206Inhibition of actin polymerization402
F-actinR28Inhibition of actin polymerization402
Myelin basic proteinArginine residuesStabilization of myelin?444
Glutamine synthetaseArginine residuesInactivation282
GTP-binding protein Gi alpha subunitsCysteine residuesAttenuates inhibition of adenylate cyclase by epinephrine; regulation of hormonal control of the adenylate cyclase system83, 393, 397
Transducin, GTP-binding protein Go alpha subunitsN343(?), D346(?), C347(?), arginine residues (R147)?Activation of a retinal cyclic GMP-selective phosphodiesterase45, 83, 250
GTP-binding protein Gs alpha subunitsArginine residuesActivation of the adenylate cyclase system172, 326
GTP-binding protein beta subunitsR129Inactivation, prevents the inhibition of type 1 adenylyl cyclase240
cGMP-phosphodiesterase gamma subunitR33 and R36Activation43
Phosphoprotein B-50/GAP-43C3 and C4Cytosolic localization320
NeurograninNAaNA81
Glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78/BiP)NANA221, 227
  • a NA, not analyzed.