TABLE 1.

Viral products that inhibit PKR activation and/or eIF2α phosphorylation

Viral product(s) (virus)Mechanism of action
γ134.5 (HSV)eIF2α dephosphorylation
Us11 (HSV)dsRNA sequestration, direct interaction with PKR and PACT
vIRF-2 (KSHV)Direct interaction with PKR
LANA2 (KSHV)Inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation
EBER RNA (EBV)PKR pseudoactivator
SM (EBV)dsRNA sequestration, direct interaction with PKR
E3L (VV)dsRNA sequestration, direct interaction with PKR
K3L (VV)PKR pseudosubstrate, direct interaction with PKR
NS1 (influenza virus)dsRNA sequestration, direct interaction with PKR
Tat (HIV-1)PKR pseudosubstrate, direct interaction with PKR
NS5A (HCV)Direct interaction with PKR
E2 (HCV)PKR pseudosubstrate, direct interaction with PKR,
σ3, σ4 (reovirus)dsRNA sequestration
NSP3 (rotavirus)dsRNA sequestration
VAI RNAs (adenovirus)PKR pseudoactivator
TRS1, IRS1 (human
    cytomegalovirus)dsRNA sequestration