TABLE 4.

HERV proteins expressed in tissues and cultured cellsa

HERV familyProtein(s) expressedTissueReferences
HERV-KGag-Pro-PolTesticular cancer, melanomas, myeloproliferative disease, breast cancer, placenta30, 46, 61, 82, 294, 339, 354, 430, 488
EnvGCTs, melanoma, ovarian cancer120, 488, 518
Rec, Np9GCTs, melanoma17, 18, 58, 81, 118, 156, 305, 354, 541
SAgEBV-infected B cells, IDDM(?)105, 219, 471, 472, 476
ParticlesGCTs, melanoma, myeloproliferative disease46, 61, 82, 294, 339, 354
HERV-WGagBrain, normal tissue, MS lesions, schizophrenia391, 426, 521
Env (syncytin-1)Brain, placenta, breast cancer13, 52, 55, 56, 153, 309, 310, 333, 391
Particlesb (MSRV, LM7)MS patient B cells and leptomeningeal cells387, 390, 393
HERV-EEnvOvarian cancer, psoriasis, normal skin, interstitial lung disease43, 479, 518
HERV-REnvPlacenta, ovarian cancer502, 518
HERV-HIntact ORFs for Env proteinsUnknown but immunosuppressive in experimental systems118, 312
Particlesb (RGH-2)Transformed lymphocyte cultures from MS patients94, 194
HERV-FRDEnv (syncytin-2)Placenta53, 54, 307, 308
HRES-1cGag-related proteinBrain, liver, T-lymphoblastoid cell lines28, 383
  • a Many HERV families also transcribe RNA in a variety of tissues (for reviews, see references 29, 172, 498, and 529). GCT, germ cell tumor.

  • b The identities of these RVLPs have not been demonstrated experimentally.

  • c The retroviral origin of HRES-1 is disputed (492).