TABLE 4.

HERV proteins expressed in tissues and cultured cellsa

HERV familyProtein(s) expressedTissueReferences
HERV-KGag-Pro-PolTesticular cancer, melanomas, myeloproliferative disease, breast cancer, placenta 30, 46, 61, 82, 294, 339, 354, 430, 488
EnvGCTs, melanoma, ovarian cancer 120, 488, 518
Rec, Np9GCTs, melanoma 17, 18, 58, 81, 118, 156, 305, 354, 541
SAgEBV-infected B cells, IDDM(?) 105, 219, 471, 472, 476
ParticlesGCTs, melanoma, myeloproliferative disease 46, 61, 82, 294, 339, 354
HERV-WGagBrain, normal tissue, MS lesions, schizophrenia 391, 426, 521
Env (syncytin-1)Brain, placenta, breast cancer 13, 52, 55, 56, 153, 309, 310, 333, 391
Particlesb (MSRV, LM7)MS patient B cells and leptomeningeal cells 387, 390, 393
HERV-EEnvOvarian cancer, psoriasis, normal skin, interstitial lung disease 43, 479, 518
HERV-REnvPlacenta, ovarian cancer 502, 518
HERV-HIntact ORFs for Env proteinsUnknown but immunosuppressive in experimental systems 118, 312
Particlesb (RGH-2)Transformed lymphocyte cultures from MS patients 94, 194
HERV-FRDEnv (syncytin-2)Placenta 53, 54, 307, 308
HRES-1cGag-related proteinBrain, liver, T-lymphoblastoid cell lines 28, 383
  • a Many HERV families also transcribe RNA in a variety of tissues (for reviews, see references 29, 172, 498, and 529). GCT, germ cell tumor.

  • b The identities of these RVLPs have not been demonstrated experimentally.

  • c The retroviral origin of HRES-1 is disputed (492).