TABLE 2.

Putative association of human diseases with retrovirusesa

DiseaseReported evidenceRetrovirus(es) implicatedReference(s)
Cancer
    Breast cancerEM, PCR, RT, FISH, AbMPMV, MMTV, HERV-K 34, 132, 135, 137, 145, 287, 328, 514, 516, 517, 523, 545
    LymphomaPCRMPMV, HRV-5 225, 260, 266, 350, 414
    Lung adenocarcinomaAgBetaretrovirus 115, 116
    ThymomaEMUnknown 16
    Ovarian carcinomaEM, PCR, Ab, AgHIV-like, HERVs 405, 518
    MelanomaEM, PCR, RT, AbHERV-K 25, 50, 81, 82, 223, 354, 431
    Myeloproliferative diseaseEM, PCR, RTHERV-K 66, 69, 339
    Testicular tumorsEM, PCR, RT, AbHERV-K 58, 60, 71, 118, 156, 174, 257, 404, 430
    Prostate cancerPCR, Ag, FISHXMRV 125, 497
Neurological disease
    SchizophreniaPCRHERV-W, HERV-K 113, 246, 375, 521
    Motor neuron diseasePCR, RTHERV-W 11, 371
    MSEM, PCR, RT, Ab, AgHERV-W, HERV-H 13, 93-96, 98, 99, 194, 258, 385, 390, 391
    Chronic fatigue syndromeEM, RT“JHK-retrovirus” 192
Autoimmune and inflammatory
    RAEM, PCRHRV-5, HERVs 67, 188, 356, 469
    SLEEM, PCR, AbHRV-5, HERVs, HIAPs 67, 188, 212, 478, 480
    Mixed connective tissue diseaseNabHIV-related? 127
    SSEM, PCR, RT, AgHIAPs, HRV-5 161, 189, 444, 477, 540
    PBCEM, PCR, Ab, AgMMTV-like 317, 318, 538
    Graves' diseaseEM, PCR, AbHFV, HIAP 100, 235, 270
    IDDMPCR, RTHERV-K 105, 463, 472
    PsoriasisEM, PCR, Ab, AgHERV-E 43, 110, 214, 230, 335, 336
    Systemic sclerosisAbHIAP-I 273
    Alopecia areataAbHIAP-I 274
Other
    ICLEM, Ab, RTHIAP-II, HICRV 162, 193, 196
    OsteopetrosisEMUnknown 68, 267
  • a Ab, antiretroviral antibodies; Nab, neutralizing antibodies; Ag, retroviral antigen.