TABLE 8.

Candidate retroviruses in human disease assessed by Hill's criteriaa

Causal criterionAssociation
HIV-1 and AIDSHTLV-I and ATLMMTV and breast cancerHERV-W and MSHERV-K18 and IDDMHIAP and SS/ICLHRV-5 and RA, SLE, lymphomaXMRV
Strength of associationYYNNDbNDbNDNND
Consistency of associationYYNYcNNDNND
Specificity of associationYNNNbNbNNND
TemporalityYYNDYbYbNDNDND
Biological gradientYYNDNDNDNDNDY
PlausibilityYYNNDNDNDNDND
CoherenceYYNNDNDNDNDY
ExperimentationYYNDNDNDNDNDND
AnalogyYYYYYYYY
  • a Y, yes; N, no; ND, not done/insufficient data.

  • b Because endogenous.

  • c For the Env protein.