TABLE 4.

Genes of lactobacilli putatively involved in adhesion studied by mutant analysis

Functional categoryGeneIdentification approachaPredicted functionLactobacillus strainMutant phenotypeReference(s)
Cell surface proteinssrtAComp.gen. (genome)SortaseL. plantarum WCFS1Reduced mannose-specific binding (yeast agglutination); no altered competitive ability in the murine GIT195
msaCGH and gene-trait matchingMannose-specific adhesinL. plantarum WCFS1Reduced mannose-specific binding (yeast agglutination)195
lp_2940R-IVETSortase-dependent cell wall proteinL. plantarum WCFS1Reduced persistence in the murine GIT31, 33
lp_1403R-IVETPutative secreted cell surface proteinL. plantarum WCFS1No altered competitive ability in the murine GIT31, 33
fbpAComp.gen. (genome)Putative fibronectin-binding proteinL. acidophilus NCFMReduced adherence to Caco-2 cells35
mubComp. gen. (genome)Putative mucus-binding proteinL. acidophilus NCFMReduced adherence to Caco-2 cells35
slpADedicated approachS-layer proteinL. acidophilus NCFMReduced adherence to Caco-2 cells35
cdpAComp.gen. (genome)Cell wall-modifying enzyme involved in cell division and separationL. acidophilus NCFMReduced adherence to Caco-2 cells3
LBA1663-LBA1664Comp.gen. (genome)R28 homologs (adhesins in S. pyogenes)L. acidophilus NCFMNo significantly altered adherence to Caco-2 cells35
srtAComp.gen. (genome)SortaseL. salivarius UCC118Reduced adherence to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells258
lspAComp.gen. (genome)Large surface protein, putative mucus-binding proteinL. salivarius UCC118Reduced adherence to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells258
lspBComp.gen. (genome)Large surface protein, putative mucus-binding proteinL. salivarius UCC118No altered adherence to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells258
lspDComp.gen. (genome)Large surface protein, putative mucus-binding proteinL. salivarius UCC118No altered adherence to HT-29 and Caco-2 cells258
lspScreening of a phage library with an antiserumLarge surface proteinL. reuteri 100-23Reduced persistence in murine GIT268
LJ1476Comp.gen. (genome)Transpeptidase sortaseL. johnsonii NCC533Gut persistence pattern similar to that of the wild-type strain67
LTAdltDDedicated approachd-Alanylation of LTAL. rhamnosus GGNo significant difference in adherence to Caco-2 and HT-29 cells; increased biofilm formation on polystyrene under certain conditions137, 188
dltADedicated approachd-Alanylation of LTAL. reuteri 100-23Decreased in vivo biofilm formation in the murine forestomach270
EPSLJ1021-LJ1035Microarray expression and CGHEntire EPS clusterL. johnsonii NCC533Slightly prolonged persistence in the murine GIT67
lamAComp.gen. (genome)Response regulator of a 2CRS involved in regulation of EPSs and membrane proteinsL. plantarum WCFS1Decreased biofilm formation of glass substrates239
wzbDedicated approachEPS biosynthesis, phosphotyrosine protein phosphataseL. rhamnosus GGAltered biofilm formation on polystyrene137; our unpublished observations
inuDedicated approachInulosucraseL. reuteri TMW1.106Reduced in vitro biofilm formation; no reduced biofilm formation in vivo on the forestomach271
gtfADedicated approachGlucosyltransferaseL. reuteri TMW1.106Reduced in vitro biofilm formation; no reduced biofilm formation in vivo on the forestomach271
  • a Comp.gen., comparative genomics.