TABLE 3.

Experimental studies with relevance to the “killing the winner” hypothesis, grouped according to the nature of the experimental manipulation and the organisms or environments studied

Authors (reference)ManipulationsOrganisms and/or environments studiedMain parameter(s)
IsolatesMarineFreshwaterEstuary
Brockhurst et al. (19)Viruses×Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptive radiation
Holmfeldt et al. (38)Viruses×Host strain susceptibility; phage host range
Lennon et al. (52)Viruses×Cost of resistance in Synechococcus spp.
Middelboe et al. (61)Viruses×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, colony morphology, phage susceptibility; BIOLOG profiles. lipopolysaccharide profiles of prokaryotes, partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, universally primed PCR profiles of prokaryotes
Middelboe et al. (63)Viruses×Competition between Cellulophaga spp. and Photobacterium sp., prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic morphology
Middelboe et al. (60)Viruses×competition between 4 isolates, batch and continuous cultures, clonal composition (resistant vs sensitive)
Bouvier and del Giorgio (16)Viruses×FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups, prokaryotic production, growth rates of the community and distinct prokaryotic groups
Hewson and Fuhrman (34)Viruses×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, community composition of Bacteria, richness of nifH gene (diazotrophs)
Middelboe and Lyck (62)Viruses×Influence of viruses on prokaryotic net growth and respiration, prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production
Schwalbach et al. (82)Viruses×Prokaryotic abundance, community composition of Bacteria
Winter et al. (109)Viruses×Prokaryotic abundance, community composition of Bacteria and Archaea
Auguet et al. (3)Viruses××Influence of auto- and allochthonous viruses on prokaryotes. prokaryotic and viral abundance, community composition of Bacteria and viruses, prokaryotic production, viral production
Hewson et al. (35)Viruses×Benthic study, community composition of microalgae and phytoplankton, prokaryotic abundance, photosynthesis and carbon fixation rates
Bonilla-Findji et al. (15)Prokaryotes××Influence of nonindigenous prokaryotes on viruses, prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, prokaryotic respiration, dissolved organic carbon, community composition of Bacteria
Šimek et al. (85)HNFa×Community composition of Bacteria, mortality due to viruses, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Sime-Ngando and Pradeep Ram (87)HNF×Concn of nutrients, prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, frequency of visibly infected cells, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Bonilla-Findji et al. (14)Viruses, HNF×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, inorganic nutrients, community composition of Bacteria and Archaea
Zhang et al. (113)Viruses, HNF×Prokaryotic abundance and production, community composition of Bacteria and Archaea
Jacquet et al. (42)Viruses, HNF×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, concn of nutrients, grazing rates, viral infection and burst size
Jardillier et al. (44)Viruses, HNF×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, abundance of protists, community composition of Bacteria, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups, prokaryotic production, viral infection of prokaryotes
Šimek et al. (86)Viruses, HNF×Effects of predators on Flectobacillus sp. populations
Weinbauer et al. (103)Viruses, HNF×Prokaryotic abundance and production, community composition of Bacteria and Archaea, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Benmayor et al. (6)Viruses, productivity, disturbance×Pseudomonas fluorescens adaptive radiation
Brockhurst et al. (18)Viruses, temp×Outcome of competition between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Brockhurst et al. (20)Viruses, spatial heterogeneity×Pseudomonas fluorescens adaptive radiation
Evans et al. (25)Viruses, HNF, nitrate, phosphate×Chlorophyll a, concn of nutrients, abundance and composition of phytoplankton (Micromonas spp.), viral abundance, grazing and lysis rates
Hewson et al. (36)Viruses, phosphate, ammonia×Benthic study, prokaryotic abundance, community composition of Bacteria, photosynthesis
Malits and Weinbauer (56)Viruses, turbulence×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, viral production, prokaryotic cell vol, no. of organic aggregates, community composition of Bacteria and Archaea, concn of nitrate and phosphate
Weinbauer et al. (102)Viruses, dissolved organic matter, dilution×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, abundance of Vibrio- and Rhodobacter-related populations using FISH
Bohannan and Lenski (11)Glucose×Abundance of bacteria and viruses
Middelboe (59)Different growth rates in chemostats×Host cell lysis and viral production, burst size, latent period, resistance
Riemann and Grossart (75)Agarose beads×Abundance of bacteria and viruses
Jacquet et al. (43)Nitrate, phosphate, glucose×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic cell size and morphology, distinction of prokaryotic and viral populations using flow cytometry
Larsen et al. (50)Nitrate, phosphate×Abundance of prokaryotes, viruses, and algae; community composition of Bacteria and Eukarya; viral community composition; primary production; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton abundance
Øvreås et al. (68)Nitrate, phosphate, glucose×Community composition of Bacteria and viruses, prokaryotic abundance and cell morphology, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Riemann et al. (77)Phosphate, silicate, nitrate, ammonia; induction of diatom blooms×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, HNF abundance, prokaryotic production, community composition of Bacteria, chlorophyll a, abundance of phytoplankton cells, ectoenzyme activity
Sandaa et al. (81)Phosphate, glucose×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, chlorophyll a, community composition of Bacteria and viruses
Jardillier et al. (45)HNF, zooplankton, nitrate, phosphate, ammonia×Concn of nitrate, phosphate, and ammonia; prokaryotic and viral abundance; community composition of Bacteria; prokaryotic production; abundance of protists and metazooplankton; grazing rates; FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Pradeep Ram and Sime-Ngando (72)HNF, glucose, nitrate, phosphate×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production and respiration, mortality due to viral lysis, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
Šimek et al. (84) and Weinbauer et al. (101)HNF, availability of phosphorus and DOC×Prokaryotic and viral abundance, prokaryotic production, viral production and lysis rate, prokaryotic cell vol, FISH for distinct prokaryotic groups
  • a HNF, heterotrophic nanoflagellates.