TABLE 1

Roles of polyamines in viral infection

VirusVirus typeHost factor/pathwayProposed mechanism/processes involvedReagent(s) usedPeak reductionaReference(s)
Herpes simplex virus 1dsDNAPolyaminesPresent in virion to neutralize viral DNA 30
Decreased infectivity through impairment of DNA synthesisDFMO2-log 44
Inhibition of infection; mechanism postentry and synthesis of immediate early genes, before or during DNA replicationMGBG63-fold 83
Vaccinia virusdsDNAPolyaminesPresent in virion to neutralize viral DNARadiolabeled polyamines 31
MGBG inhibition late in viral life cycle, viral DNA dissociated from viral inclusionsMGBG2.9-fold 45
Upregulation of ODC activity 46
Human cytomegalovirusdsDNAPolyaminesReduction of infectious virus produced; mechanism likely through virus assembly (DNA packaging and/or capsid envelopment)DFMO4-log, 6-log 43, 84
Semliki Forest virus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesDecreased activity of viral RNA polymeraseDFMO10-fold 60, 61
Chikungunya virus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesDecreased activity of viral RNA polymerase, decreased viral translation, reduction in infectious virus producedDFMO, DENSpm200-fold 62, 63
Zika virus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO, DENSpm15-fold 62, 63
MERS coronavirus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO30-fold 63
Enterovirus A71(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO12-fold 63
Coxsackievirus B3(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO, DENSpm10-fold 62, 63
Japanese encephalitis virus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO5-fold 63
Yellow fever virus(+)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO90-fold 63
Rabies virus(−)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO2-fold 63
Rift Valley fever virus(−)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO200-fold 63
Vesicular stomatitis virus(−)ssRNAPolyaminesReduction in infectious virus producedDFMO, DENSpm20-fold 63
Ebolavirus(−)ssRNAPolyamines, eIF5AReduction in infectious virus produced, mechanism through decreased accumulation of VP30CPX, GC7, DEF, DFMO, MDL, SAM486A3-log 64
Marburgvirus(−)ssRNAPolyamines, eIF5AReduction in infectious virus producedCPX3-log 64
Human immunodeficiency virusssRNA-RTeIF5ARequired for Rev-dependent nuclear transporteIF5A mutants 67
Decrease in virus production; required for RNA translation and Rev-induced gene expressioneIF5A siRNA2-fold 85
Inhibition of gene expression at transcription initiationCPX, DEF200-fold 86
  • a Peak reduction represents experimental time point/condition where the peak effect was observed. Experimental details and alternative time points/conditions can be found in the indicated references.