TABLE 2

Effectors of filamentous plant pathogens that have had their structures determined

ProteinOriginTargeted processcImmune receptor(s)FoldComparison to known structurePDB accession no.Reference
RMSD (Å) (no. of residues in overlay)aSequence identity (%)
Avr3a11P. capsiciUnknownWYNDND3ZR874
Avr3a4P. capsiciUnknownWY1.26 (42)79.02LC277
PexRD2P. infestansMAPKKKε-mediated immune signalingWY1.41 (40)27.83ZRG74
PexRD54P. infestansAutophagyWY1.73 (41)20.05L7S78
ATR1H. arabidopsidisUnknownRPP1WY2.37 (36)23.73RMR76
AvrL567-DM. liniUnknownL6ToxA-like2.74 (82)22.22QVT105
AvrL567-AM. liniUnknownL5 and L6ToxA-like2.58 (81)19.72OPC105
avrMM. liniUnknownWY-likeND26.14BJM106
AvrM-AM. liniUnknownMWY-likeND23.94BJN106
AVR-PikD (in complex)M. oryzaeUnknownPik1/Pik2MAXNDND5A6W82
Avr1-CO39M. oryzaeUnknownRGA5/RGA4MAX1.36 (55)17.22MYV80
AVR-PiaM. oryzaeUnknownRGA5/RGA4MAX2.24 (52)16.42MYW80
AVR-PiztM. oryzaeE3 ligase-mediated immunityPiz-tMAX2.33 (58)15.62LW684
Avr4P. fuligenaChitin-mediated immunity/fungally derived chitin perceptionCf-4CBM14-like1.98 (52)22.24Z4A61
Ecp6C. fulvumChitin-mediated immunity/fungally derived chitin perceptionLysM10.8 (45)35.94B8V54
Ecp6C. fulvumLysM21.17 (43)37.14B8V54
Ecp6C. fulvumLysM31.51 (45)20.84B8V54
AvrLm4-7L. maculansProduction of plant hormones and hydrogen peroxide/plant hormone-mediated immunityRlm4 and Rlm7UniqueNDND4FPR110
ToxAP. tritici-repentisPhotosynthesisTsn1bToxA-likeNDND1ZLE103
ToxBP. tritici-repentisPhotosynthesisMAX2.25 (58)25.42MM081
toxbP. tritici-repentisInactive alleleMAX2.33 (57)19.72MM281
NLPP. aphanidermatumPlasma membrane integrityActinoporin-like2.34 (68)21.93GNZ64
NLPM. perniciosaPlasma membrane integrityActinoporin-like2.24 (68)19.33ST170
  • a Template proteins used for comparison are Avr3a11 (WY and WY-like), AVR-PikD (MAX), tachycitin (CBM14-like), MoCVNH3 (LysM), ToxA (ToxA-like), and sticholysin II (actinoporin-like). RMSD, root mean square deviation; ND, not determined (either to avoid comparison with self or because the comparison is not meaningful).

  • b Tsn1 is a susceptibility factor.

  • c MAPKKKε, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase ε.