TABLE 2

Effectors of filamentous plant pathogens that have had their structures determined

ProteinOriginTargeted processcImmune receptor(s)FoldComparison to known structurePDB accession no.Reference
RMSD (Å) (no. of residues in overlay)aSequence identity (%)
Avr3a11 P. capsici Unknown WYNDND 3ZR8 74
Avr3a4 P. capsici Unknown WY1.26 (42)79.0 2LC2 77
PexRD2 P. infestans MAPKKKε-mediated immune signaling WY1.41 (40)27.8 3ZRG 74
PexRD54 P. infestans Autophagy WY1.73 (41)20.0 5L7S 78
ATR1 H. arabidopsidis UnknownRPP1WY2.37 (36)23.7 3RMR 76
AvrL567-D M. lini UnknownL6ToxA-like2.74 (82)22.2 2QVT 105
AvrL567-A M. lini UnknownL5 and L6ToxA-like2.58 (81)19.7 2OPC 105
avrM M. lini Unknown WY-likeND26.1 4BJM 106
AvrM-A M. lini UnknownMWY-likeND23.9 4BJN 106
AVR-PikD (in complex) M. oryzae UnknownPik1/Pik2MAXNDND 5A6W 82
Avr1-CO39 M. oryzae UnknownRGA5/RGA4MAX1.36 (55)17.2 2MYV 80
AVR-Pia M. oryzae UnknownRGA5/RGA4MAX2.24 (52)16.4 2MYW 80
AVR-Pizt M. oryzae E3 ligase-mediated immunityPiz-tMAX2.33 (58)15.6 2LW6 84
Avr4 P. fuligena Chitin-mediated immunity/fungally derived chitin perceptionCf-4CBM14-like1.98 (52)22.2 4Z4A 61
Ecp6 C. fulvum Chitin-mediated immunity/fungally derived chitin perception LysM10.8 (45)35.9 4B8V 54
Ecp6 C. fulvum LysM21.17 (43)37.1 4B8V 54
Ecp6 C. fulvum LysM31.51 (45)20.8 4B8V 54
AvrLm4-7 L. maculans Production of plant hormones and hydrogen peroxide/plant hormone-mediated immunityRlm4 and Rlm7UniqueNDND 4FPR 110
ToxA P. tritici-repentis PhotosynthesisTsn1bToxA-likeNDND 1ZLE 103
ToxB P. tritici-repentis Photosynthesis MAX2.25 (58)25.4 2MM0 81
toxb P. tritici-repentis Inactive allele MAX2.33 (57)19.7 2MM2 81
NLP P. aphanidermatum Plasma membrane integrity Actinoporin-like2.34 (68)21.9 3GNZ 64
NLP M. perniciosa Plasma membrane integrity Actinoporin-like2.24 (68)19.3 3ST1 70
  • a Template proteins used for comparison are Avr3a11 (WY and WY-like), AVR-PikD (MAX), tachycitin (CBM14-like), MoCVNH3 (LysM), ToxA (ToxA-like), and sticholysin II (actinoporin-like). RMSD, root mean square deviation; ND, not determined (either to avoid comparison with self or because the comparison is not meaningful).

  • b Tsn1 is a susceptibility factor.

  • c MAPKKKε, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase ε.