Table 2

Anti-inflammatory properties of immunomodulatory drugs

Type of therapeuticDrug(s)Immunomodulatory effect(s) (reference[s])
COX inhibitorsMesalamine, celecoxibCoadministration of COX inhibitors with zanamivir diminished cellular infiltrate and improved survival of H5N1 virus-infected mice compared to antiviral treatment alone (22, 157)
CCR2 inhibitorPF-04178903Increased survival of mice infected with influenza virus and reduced lung immunopathology (87, 88)
Sphingosine receptor agonistsSuppresses cytokine and chemokine production; sphingosine receptors have been shown to play an important role in innate immune responses (120)
Anti-TNF agentsMediator of pulmonary inflammation during influenza A viral pneumonia; decreased severity of pulmonary immunopathology and prolonged survival of A/PR/8-infected mice (67)
StatinsSimvastatinStatins were not found to reduce the risk of developing severe disease in patients with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 (144)
OX40OX40-Ig fusion proteinsOX40 plays a critical role in T-cell-mediated immunopathology in the lung during viral infection (65); ligation on activated T cells reduces pulmonary eosinophilia during Cryptococcus neoformans infection (64)
PPARα/PPARγ agonistsGemfibrozil, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, 15d-PGJ2, ciglitazone, troglitazone15d-PGJ2, ciglitazone, and troglitazone decreased production of IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF cytokines, CXCL8 and CCL5 chemokines, and ICAM-1 in RSV-infected lung epithelial cells (4); administration of gemfibrozil (intraperitoneally) on days 4 to 10 after exposure to H2N2 influenza virus and following the onset of illness significantly increased survival in mice with severe influenza (20)