Table 1

Enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism in eukaryotes

EnzymeDesignationaEC no.Reference(s)Fig.
α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Krebs cycle)421.2.4.2270, 53814, 16
Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase, members of subfamilies 1A, 1B, and 1Cb2A2.8.3.8438, 503, 528, 529, 53349, 1214, 16, 17
    Acyl-CoA transferase2B
    Propionate:succinate CoA-transferase2C
Acetate kinase402.7.2.1521, 255, 48518
Acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP forming)306.2.1.1342810, 11
l-Alanine aminotransferase182.6.1.228, 169, 404, 44568, 1014, 16
    Glutamate:pyruvate transaminase
    Pyruvate aminotransferase
l-Alanine racemase215.1.1.14457
Alanopine dehydrogenase201.5.1.171437
Alcohol dehydrogenase (NADH dependent)331.1.1.123016, 18
Alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH dependent)341.1.1.228412, 13
Alcohol dehydrogenase E251.1.1.160, 567911, 18
    Alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase1.2.1.10
Aspartate aminotransferase192.6.1.1404, 44568
    Glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase
    Glutamate aminotransferase
α-Hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase371.1.1.3556115
α-Ketoacyl reductase361.1.1.3556115
α-Ketoacyl synthase352.3.1.9455915
Citrate synthase432.3.3.1441, 53814
Fumarase/fumarate hydratase84.2.1.235449, 1316
Fumarate reductase (membrane bound)FRD1.3.5.150148, 15
Fumarate reductase (soluble)241.3.1.63549, 13, 14
Glutamate dehydrogenase411.4.1.212516
Hydrogenase (iron only)41.12.7.264, 198, 3789, 1113, 1618
Lactate dehydrogenase121.1.1.272849, 12, 1618
Malate dehydrogenase111.1.1.37202415, 17
Malic enzyme51.1.1.39124417
Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase/racemase155.1.99.14248, 15
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase145.44.99.2301, 335, 41848, 15
NADH dehydrogenase, 51-kDa and 24-kDa subunits311.6.5.320912
NAD(P)H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase231.18.1.2/33179
Octopine dehydrogenase271.5.1.11143, 4626, 8
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP)104.1.1.495114, 6, 7, 9, 14, 15
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ITP/GTP)174.1.1.32278, 5115, 8, 1113, 17
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxytransferase (PPi)284.1.1.3840610
Phosphotransacetylase392.3.1.825518
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase166.4.1.31854, 6, 7, 9, 14, 15
Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase11.2.7.12401013, 18
Pyruvate:formate lyase222.3.1.5421, 479, 18
Pyruvate:NADP+ oxidoreductase71.2.1.51217, 270, 41915, 17
Pyruvate:orthophosphate dikinase292.7.9.140510, 11
Pyruvate decarboxylase324.1.1.1252, 47712, 13, 16, 18
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex61.2.4.157548, 1416, 18
Pyruvate kinase92.7.1.40330618
Strombine dehydrogenase261.5.1.2238868
Succinyl-CoA synthetase/succinate thiokinase36.2.1.5179, 226, 22749, 1217
trans-2-Enoyl-CoA reductase381.3.1.3819715
  • a Refers to the enzyme designations in the figures and figure legends.

  • b See reference 503.