Table 2

Characterized quorum-quenching enzymes

GroupProteinSourceAHL specificity and preference, protein family, or enzyme classaLocalization, cofactor, or target signalbReference(s)
AcylasesPvdQPseudomonas aeruginosa≥7 carbonsCell associated41, 42, 43, 44
QuiPPseudomonas aeruginosa≥7 carbonsCell associated45
AiiDRalstonia sp. strain XJ12B3OC8-, C4-, and 3OC12-HSLscCell associated46
AacRalstonia solanacearum GMI1000≥7 carbonsCell associated47
AhlMStreptomyces sp. strain M664≥6 carbons, unsubstitutedSecreted48
AiiCAnabaena sp. strain PCC 71204–14 carbonsCell associated49
AacShewanella sp. strain MIB015≥8 carbons, unsubstitutedND50
HacAPseudomonas syringae B728a≥8 carbons; unsubstitutedSecreted51
HacBPseudomonas syringae B728a≥6 carbonsCell associated51
HacBPseudomonas aeruginosa≥6 carbonsCell associated52
NDVariovorax paradoxus4–14 carbonsND53
NDComamonas sp. strain D14–16 carbonsND54
NDRhodococcus erythropolis6–14 carbons, 3-oxo-AHLsND55
LactonasesAiiABacillus sp.Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+5657, 58, 59, 60, 61
AiiBAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain 58Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+62, 63
AttMAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain 58Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+63, 64, 65
AhlDArthrobacter sp. strain IBN110Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+66
AhlKKlebsiella pneumoniae KCTC2241Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+66
QsdR1Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+67
QlcASoil metagenomeMetallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+68
AidCChryseobacterium sp. strain StRB126Metallo-β-lactamase superfamilyZn2+69
QsdARhodococcus erythropolisPhosphotriesterase familyZn2+70
AiiMMicrobacterium testaceum StLB037α/β-Hydrolase familyNone71
AidHOchrobactrum anthropiα/β-Hydrolase familyMn2+72
QsdHPseudoalteromonas byunsanensis strain 1A01261GDSL hydrolase familyNone73
BpiB01Soil metagenomeHypothetical proteinZn2+74
BpiB04Soil metagenomeGlycosyl hydrolase familyZn2+74
BpiB07Soil metagenomeDienelactone hydrolase familyZn2+74
DhlRRhizobium sp. strain NGR234Dienelactone hydrolase familyND67
BpiB05Soil metagenomeHypothetical proteinCa2+75
PON1-3Mammals (humans)PON familyCa2+76, 77, 78
Other enzymesCYP102A1Bacillus megateriumOxidoreductaseAHLs7980
NDRhodococcus erythropolisOxidoreductase3-Oxo-AHLs55
BpiB09Soil metagenomeOxidoreductaseAHLs81
CarABPaenibacillus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Microbacterium, and Pseudomonas spp.Carbamoyl phosphate synthaseDSF82
HodArthrobacter nitroguajacolicusDioxygenasePQS83
LsrKE. coliKinaseAI-284
  • a The AHL specificity and preference, protein family, and enzyme class are given for acylases, lactonases, and other enzymes, respectively. For the acylases, numbers refer to the preferred acyl chain length, and the preference for 3-oxo-substituted versus unsubstituted AHLs (if observed) is indicated.

  • b The localization, cofactor, and target signal are given for acylases, lactonases, and other enzymes, respectively. ND, not determined.

  • c Other AHLs were not tested.