TABLE 1

Summary of lantibiotic resistance methodsa

Resistance mechanism and relevant protein(s) or operonSpeciesRegulator(s)Lantibiotic resistance(s)
Cell wall/membrane-altering mechanisms
    MprfS. aureus, L. monocytogenesVirRS/GraRSNisin, gallidermin
    DltAStreptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., L. monocytogenes, L. lactis, B. subtilis, C. difficileVirRS/sigma factorsNisin, gallidermin
    gal operonL. lactisNisin
    Penicillin-binding proteinL. monocytogenes, L. lactis, S. aureusLiaRS, LisRK, VraSR, sigma factorsNisin
    Lipid composition, including the fab operonL. monocytogenes, L. lactisNisin
Miscellaneous resistance mechanisms
    Nisin resistance protein*L. lactis, Corynebacterium spp., Leuconostoc spp., Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.Nisin
    Nisinase*S. thermophilus, L. plantarum, C. botulinum, L. lactis, E. faecalis, S. aureus, Bacillus spp.Nisin, subtilin
    GadL. monocytogenesNisin
    NsrXS. mutansNsrRSNisin
    arc operonL. lactisNisin
    PurRS. aureusNisin
    IreK-IreP-IreBE. faecalisNisin
    Sigma factorsL. monocytogenes, B. subtilisNisin, sublancin, mersacidin, subtilin gallidermin
    VraFGS. aureusGraXRSNisin, nukacin ISK-1
    CprABCC. difficileCprRKNisin, gallidermin
    AnrABL. monocytogenesVirRSNisin
    VraDES. aureusBraRS, VraSRNisin
    YsaBCL. lactisLlrG/KinGNisin
    BraDES. aureusBraRSNisin
    Lmo1746-Lmo1747L. monocytogenesVirRS, LiaRSNisin
    BceABB. subtilisBceRSActagardine, mersacidin
    PsdABB. subtilisPsdRSNisin, gallidermin, subtilin, actagardine
    Sp0912-Sp0913S. pneumoniaeRr01-Hk01Nisin
    LctFEGS. mutansLcrRSNukacin ISK-1, lacticin 481
    NsrFPCorynebacterium spp., Leuconostoc spp., Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.NsrRKNisin
    TelAL. monocytogenesLiaRSNisin, gallidermin
    EfdFE*E. faeciumLacticin 3147
    SpiFEG*S. infantariusSpiRR′K?Nisin
Two-component systems
    TC09, TC12L. caseiNisin
    GrsRSS. aureusNisin, nukacin ISK-1
    BraRSS. aureusNisin, nukacin ISK-1
    PsdRSB. subtilisNisin, gallidermin, subtilin, actagardine
    LlrG/KinGL. lactisNisin
    ApsRSS. epidermidisNisin
    BceRSBacillus spp.Actagardine, mersacidin
    LiaRSBacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., L. monocytogenesNisin
    NsrRSS. mutansNisin, lacticin 481, nukacin ISK-1
    LcrRSS. mutansNukacin ISK-1, lacticin 481
    VraSRS. aureusNisin, mersacidin, nukacin ISK-1
    LisRKL. monocytogenesNisin
    CesSRL. lactisNisin, plantaricin C
    VirRSL. monocytogenesNisin
    CprRKC. difficileNisin, gallidermin, subtilin, mutacin 1140, cinnamycin
  • a The table lists the strains in which lantibiotic resistance has been observed and the lantibiotics to which this resistance is targeted. Not included in the table are the general resistance mechanism inferred by the Gram-negative cell wall and that of spore or biofilm formation. Lantibiotic-specific resistance methods are indicated with asterisks.