TABLE 1

Distribution of SMases and PLases which play a role in virulence among bacterial phyla

Enzyme typeBacterial phylum (class) with a role in virulence
Sphingomyelinase CsProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria), Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes (Bacilli), Chlamydiae
Sphingomyelinase Ds which adopt a TIM barrel structureProteobacteria (Betaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria
Other sphingomyelinase DsProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria)
Acyl hydrolases which adopt an antiparallel β-barrel structureProteobacteria (Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria)
Surface-associated PLA2sProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria)
Acyl hydrolases from the SGNH esterase familyProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria
Acyl hydrolases which adopt the α/β hydrolase foldProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria
Secreted patatin-like acyl hydrolasesProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria
Class XIB phospholipase A2sProteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria), Firmicutes (Bacilli, Clostridia)
PI-specific phospholipase CFirmicutes (Clostridia, Bacilli), Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria
Zn2+ metallophospholipase C with SMase C activityProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria), Firmicutes (Clostridia, Bacilli)
Phospholipase C from the acid phosphatase superfamilyProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria
Other phospholipase CsProteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria)
Phospholipase DProteobacteria (Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae