TABLE 1

Stress genes affecting the virulence of pathogenic streptococci and enterococci

PathogenMutationStress defense mechanismAnimal model/administrationReference
Streptococci
    S. agalactiaeΔclpPMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intravenous485
ΔsodAOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intravenous521
ΔnoxOxidative stress (O2 reduction)Mouse/intranasal515
ΔcydAOxidative stress (respiration)Neonatal rat/intraperitoneal517
    S. mutansΔfabMRat caries/oral swab542
ΔclpP or ΔclpXMolecular chaperone/proteaseRat colonization/oral swab304
ΔspxA1Oxidative stress regulatorG. mellonella/systemic346
ΔspxA1 ΔspxA2Oxidative stress regulatorRat colonization/oral swab346
    S. pneumoniaeΔrelSpnStringent responseMouse/intranasal126
ΔcodYNutrient-sensing regulatorMouse/intranasal549
ΔhtrAMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intranasal487, 488
ΔhtrAMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/subcutaneous489
ΔclpPMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intranasal479
ΔclpPMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intratracheal and intraperitoneal477
ΔclpPMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intraperitoneal478
ΔclpEMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intraperitoneal480
ΔnoxOxidative stress (O2 reduction)Mouse/intranasal514
ΔsodAOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intranasal519
ΔdprOxidative stress (Fe+ chelator)Mouse/intranasal527
ΔtpxDOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intranasal522
ΔahpCFOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intranasal and intraperitoneal523
ΔccpANutrient-sensing regulator545
ΔccpANutrient-sensing regulator546
    S. pyogenesΔgpoAOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/subcutaneous and intraperitoneal524
ΔperROxidative stress regulatorMouse/subcutaneous530
ΔperROxidative stress regulatorMouse/subcutaneous and intraperitoneal529
ΔperROxidative stress regulatorBaboon/posterior pharynx531
ΔahpCOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intranasal, intravenous, or subcutaneous523, 529
ΔhtrAMolecular chaperone/proteaseMouse/intraperitoneal489
ΔccpANutrient-sensing regulatorMouse/throat swab544
ΔccpANutrient-sensing regulatorMouse/vaginal swab548
    S. sanguinisΔspxA1Oxidative stress regulatorRabbit/intravenous (endocarditis)348
    S. suisΔsodOxidative stress (ROS scavenger)Mouse/intraperitoneal520
ΔperROxidative stress regulatorMouse/intraperitoneal532
ΔspxA1Oxidative stress regulatorMouse/intraperitoneal347
ΔccpANutrient-sensing regulatorMouse/intraperitoneal547
ΔtigMolecular chaperoneMouse/intraperitoneal493
Enterococci
    E. faecalisΔclpBChaperoneG. mellonella/systemic308
Δgls24General stress proteinMouse/peritonitis and endocarditis494
ΔsodASuperoxide dismutaseMouse macrophages and microglia254, 525
ΔtpxPeroxidaseMouse macrophages248
Δnpr, Δtpx, or ΔahpCFPeroxidaseMouse macrophages248
ΔmsrA or ΔmsrBMethionine sulfoxide reductaseMouse/systemic or urinary tract infection526
ΔperRRegulatorMouse/peritonitis94
ΔhypRRegulatorMouse macrophages or peritonitis532, 533
ΔspxOxidative stress regulatorMouse/intraperitoneal535
ΔasrRRegulatorG. mellonella or mouse macrophages536
ΔersRegulatorMacrophage infection537
ΔrelA ΔrelQStringent responseC. elegans/bacterial lawn, G. mellonella/systemic, or rabbit abscess/intravenous124, 551, 552
    E. faeciumΔgls33-glsB Δgls20-glsB1General stress proteinMouse peritonitis496
Δnox::Tn917NADH oxidaseC. elegans516
ΔccpARegulatorRat endocarditis550