TABLE 2

Cultured microbial isolates with rhodopsins

Strain(s); species or taxonTaxon (clade)Geographic originRhodopsin typeaReference
HTCC2207; SAR92GammaproteobacteriaOregon, East PacificPR53
IMCC3088; MO60/NOR5GammaproteobacteriaSouth Korea, Yellow SeaPR60
IMCC2047; AlteromonadalesGammaproteobacteriaSouth Korea, Yellow SeaPR61
AND4; Vibrio sp.GammaproteobacteriaAndaman SeaPR35
BAA-1116; Vibrio campbelliiGammaproteobacteriaMarinePR142
PEL22A; Vibrio campbelliiGammaproteobacteriaAbrolhos Bank, South AtlanticPR62
BAA-2122; Vibrio caribbeanicusGammaproteobacteriaCuraçao, Caribbean SeaPR63
ATCC 33789; Vibrio splendidusGammaproteobacteriaSeawater, Hawaii, PacificPR63
10 strains; SAR11AlphaproteobacteriaOregon, East PacificPR55
11 strains; SAR11AlphaproteobacteriaOregon coast; BATSdPR102
IMCC1322; Puniceispirillum marinumAlphaproteobacteria (SAR116)South Korea, West PacificPR59
HTCC2181; OM43BetaproteobacteriaOregon, East PacificXR57
MOLA814BetaproteobacteriaBeaufort Sea, Arctic OceanPR58
MED134, MED152; FlavobacteriiaBacteroidetesWest Mediterranean SeaPR65
38 strains; FlavobacteriiaBacteroidetesJapan, West PacificPR67
M31; Salinibacter ruberBacteroidetesSolar salternXR, HR, 2 SR75
DSW-6; Nonlabens dokdonensisBacteroidetesSouth Korea, West PacificNaR, PR87
NBRC 100814; Dokdonia eikastaBacteroidetesWest PacificNaR, PR40
R-8282; Gillisia limnaeabBacteroidetesLake Fryxell, AntarcticaNaR, PR41
PRO95; Dokdonia sp.BacteroidetesNorth SeaNaR, PR42, 168
S1-08; Nonlabens marinusBacteroidetesNorthwestern Pacific OceanNaR, ClR, PR43
5 luna mixed culturesActinobacteriaGreat Lakes, CanadaActR82
JL-3; Exiguobacterium sp.FirmicutesFreshwater lakeSRc74
CCMP 1788; Oxyrrhis marina (and others)Dinoflagellate (multiple)Caribbean SeaPR47
UNC 1102; Pseudo-nitzschia graniiDiatomsIndian OceanXR155
Organic lake phycodnavirusPhycodnaviridaeAntarcticaPR156
Phaeocystis globosa virus (PGV)PhycodnaviridaeAntarcticaPR156
  • a PR, proteorhodopsin; XR, xanthorhodopsin; HR, halorhodopsin, SR, sensory rhodopsin; NaR, sodium-pumping rhodopsin; ClR, chloride-pumping rhodopsin.

  • b The genome of the strain carries a third rhodopsin gene, likely encoding a truncated NaR containing only 120 amino acids.

  • c Rhodopsin pumps protons when overexpressed in E. coli.

  • d Bermuda Atlantic Time Series study site.